Pigmentary Abnormalities

  • Michael A. O. Lewis
  • Philip-John Lamey
Part of the BDJ Clinician’s Guides book series (BDJCG)


Pigmentary changes which occur in the oral mucosa may be due to a number of conditions, including endocrine disturbances, drug therapy, smoking and betel chewing.

Further Reading

  1. Odell EW. Cawson’s essentials of oral pathology and oral medicine. 9th ed. Amsterdam: Elsevier; 2017. ISBN 9780702049828.Google Scholar
  2. Passeron T, Ortonne JP, editors. Atlas of pigmentary disorders. Berlin: Springer; 2016. ISBN 9783319108964.Google Scholar
  3. van der Wall I. Atlas of oral diseases. Berlin: Springer; 2015.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Michael A. O. Lewis
    • 1
  • Philip-John Lamey
    • 2
  1. 1.School of DentistryCardiff University School of DentistryCardiffUK
  2. 2.Edinburgh Dental InstituteUniversity of Edinburgh Edinburgh, Dental InstituteEdinburghUK

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