White Patches

  • Michael A. O. Lewis
  • Philip-John Lamey
Part of the BDJ Clinician’s Guides book series (BDJCG)


A number of developmental, infective, inflammatory, acquired and neoplastic conditions of the oral mucosa may present as white patches.

Further Reading

  1. Al-Hashimi I, et al. Oral lichen planus and oral lichenoid lesions: diagnostic and therapeutic considerations. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2007;103(Suppl 1):S25.e1–S25.e12.Google Scholar
  2. Healthcare Improvement Scotland. Scottish referral guidelines for suspected cancer. August 2014.
  3. Lewis MAO. Mouth cancer: presentation, detection and referral in primary dental care. Br Dent J. 2018;225:833–40. Scholar
  4. Lewis M, Williams D. Diagnosis and management of oral candidosis. Br Dent J. 2017;223:675–81. Scholar
  5. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Suspected cancer: recognition and referral. 22 June 2015.
  6. Williams D, Lewis M. Pathogenesis and treatment of oral candidosis. J Oral Microbiol. 2011;3:5771. Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Michael A. O. Lewis
    • 1
  • Philip-John Lamey
    • 2
  1. 1.School of DentistryCardiff University School of DentistryCardiffUK
  2. 2.Edinburgh Dental InstituteUniversity of Edinburgh Edinburgh, Dental InstituteEdinburghUK

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