Special Investigation and Referral in Oral Medicine

  • Michael A. O. Lewis
  • Philip-John Lamey
Part of the BDJ Clinician’s Guides book series (BDJCG)


A variety of special investigations are routinely used to aid clinical diagnosis. It is clearly not necessary to perform a large number of special investigations on every patient and tests should therefore be limited to those which are most appropriate.

Further Reading

  1. Cancer Research UK. Oral cancer recognition toolkit. Accessed Jan 2019.
  2. Dunne SM, Birnbaum W. Oral diagnosis: The clinician’s guide. London: Wright; 2000. ISBN 0723610401.Google Scholar
  3. Hodgson T, et al. Laboratory medicine and diagnostic pathology. In: Farah C, Balasubramaniam R, McCullough M, editors. Contemporary oral medicine. Cham: Springer; 2018. Scholar
  4. Macey R, Walsh T, Brocklehurst P, et al. Diagnostic tests for oral cancer and potentially malignant disorders in patients with clinically evident lesions. Cochrane Database Sys Rev. 2015;5:Cd010276. Scholar
  5. Scully C. Oral and maxillofacial medicine. The basis of diagnosis and treatment. 3rd ed. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone; 2013. ISBN 9780702049484.Google Scholar
  6. Whaites E, Drage N. Essentials of dental radiography and radiology. 5th ed. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone; 2013. ISBN 97807020445998.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Michael A. O. Lewis
    • 1
  • Philip-John Lamey
    • 2
  1. 1.School of DentistryCardiff University School of DentistryCardiffUK
  2. 2.Edinburgh Dental InstituteUniversity of Edinburgh Edinburgh, Dental InstituteEdinburghUK

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