Advertisement

The Role of Knowledge City Features in Nurturing Entrepreneurship: Evidence from EU Cities

  • Carolina Bruzzi
  • Enrico Ivaldi
  • Enrico Musso
  • Lara PencoEmail author
Chapter
Part of the The Urban Book Series book series (UBS)

Abstract

The present paper aims to answer the following research questions: (i) is the knowledge city environment a stimulus for entrepreneurship? (ii) which profiles of knowledge cities stimulate entrepreneurship most? In order to answer the aforementioned research questions, two multidimensional indexes have been created: Knowledge-Based City Developing Entrepreneurship (KBCDE) and Entrepreneurship (ENT). The sample includes all capital cities in the EU28. The presence of cities from EU28 countries is important to foster the entrepreneurship attitude in each European Country. We have also included 32 non-capital cities in the EU that are important hubs, thus creating a sample formed of 60 cities. Our work tries to contribute to the debate on urban economic development and entrepreneurship, providing a stimulus for academics and urban policymakers. The empirical results show that the social and cultural environment may significantly improve entrepreneurship in EU cities, more than other factors that are usually connected to economic development.

Keywords

Entrepreneurship Knowledge economy Knowledge city Key factors Statistical index 

References

  1. Ács ZJ, Autio E, Szerb L (2014) National systems of entrepreneurship: measurement issues and policy implications. Res Policy 43(3):476–494Google Scholar
  2. Andersson S (2011) International entrepreneurship, born globals and the theory of effectuation. J Small Bus Enterp Dev 18(3):627–643Google Scholar
  3. Audretsch DB (2007) Entrepreneurship capital and economic growth. Oxf Rev Econ Policy 23(1):63–78Google Scholar
  4. Audretsch DB, Belitski M (2017) Entrepreneurial ecosystems in cities: establishing the framework conditions. J Technol Transf 42(5):1030–1051Google Scholar
  5. Audretsch DB, Fritsch M (2002) Growth regimes over time and space. Reg Stud 36(2):113–124Google Scholar
  6. Audretsch DB, Belitski M, Desai S (2015) Entrepreneurship and economic development in cities. Ann Reg Sci 55(1):33–60Google Scholar
  7. Audretsch DB, Keilbach MC, Lehmann EE (2006) Entrepreneurship and economic growth. Oxford University Press, UKGoogle Scholar
  8. Bannerjee S, Bone J, Finger Y (2016) European digital city index—methodology report. Nesta Report. ISBN: 978-1-84875-153-8Google Scholar
  9. Beaudry C, Schiffauerova A (2009) Who’s right, Marshall or Jacobs? The localization versus urbanization debate. Res Policy 38(2):318–337Google Scholar
  10. Bennison D, Warnaby G, Medway D (2007) The role of quarters in large city centres: a Mancunian case study. Int J Retail Distrib Manag 35(8):626–638Google Scholar
  11. Bosma N, Sternberg R (2014) Entrepreneurship as an urban event? Empirical evidence from European cities. Reg Stud 48(6):1016–1033Google Scholar
  12. Carrillo FJ (2004) Capital cities: a taxonomy of capital accounts for knowledge cities. J Knowl Manag 8(5):28–46Google Scholar
  13. Carrillo FJ (2006) From transitional to radical knowledge-based development. J Knowl Manag 10(5):3–5Google Scholar
  14. Carrillo FJ, Yigitcanlar T, Garcia B, Lonnqvist A (2014) Knowledge and the city: concepts, applications and trends of knowledge—based urban development. Routledge, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  15. Chatterji A, Glaeser E, Kerr W (2014) Clusters of entrepreneurship and innovation. Innov Policy Econ 14(1):129–166Google Scholar
  16. Clark T (2003) Urban amenities: lakes, opera, and juice bars—do they drive development? In: Clark T (ed) The city as an entertainment machine. JAI Press/Elsevier, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  17. Cocchia A (2014) Smart and digital city a systematic literature review. In: Dameri RP, Rosenthal-Sabroux C (eds) Smart city how to create public and economic value with high technology in urban space. Springer, Cham, pp 13–43Google Scholar
  18. Crescenzi R, Rodriguez-Pose A, Storper M (2007) The territorial dynamics of innovation: a Europe-United States comparative analysis. J Econ Geogr 7(6):673–709Google Scholar
  19. Dijkstra L, Garcilazo E, McCann P (2013) The economic performance of European cities and city regions: myths and realities. Eur Plan Stud 21(3):334–354Google Scholar
  20. Edvardsson IR, Yigitcanlar T, Pancholi S (2016) Knowledge city research and practice under the microscope: a review of empirical findings. Knowl Manag Res Pract 14(4):537–564Google Scholar
  21. Edvinsson L (2006) Aspects on the city as a knowledge tool. J Knowl Manag 10(5):6–13Google Scholar
  22. Ergazakis K, Metaxiotis K, Psarras J (2004) Towards knowledge cities: conceptual analysis and success stories. J Knowl Manag 8(5):5–15Google Scholar
  23. Florida R (2002) The economic geography of talent. Ann Assoc Am Geogr 92(4):743–755Google Scholar
  24. Florida R, Mellander C, Stolarick K (2008) Inside the black box of regional development—human capital, the creative class and tolerance. J Econ Geogr 8(5):615–649Google Scholar
  25. Garcia BC (2012) MAKCi: a knowledge-based development metrics experience. Int J Knowl-Based Dev 3(4):367–387Google Scholar
  26. Ghio N, Guerini M, Lehmann EE, Rossi-Lamastra C (2015) The emergence of the knowledge spillover theory of entrepreneurship. Small Bus Econ 44(1):1–18Google Scholar
  27. Glaeser EL, Gottlieb JD (2006) Urban resurgence and the consumer city. Urban Stud 43(8):1275–1299Google Scholar
  28. Glaeser EL, Kallal HD, Scheinkman JA, Shleifer A (1992) Growth in cities. J Polit Econ 100(6):1126–1152Google Scholar
  29. Glaeser EL, Kolko J, Saiz A (2001) Consumer city. J Econ Geogr 1(1):27–50Google Scholar
  30. Glaeser EL, Ponzetto GA, Tobio K (2014) Cities, skills and regional change. Reg Stud 48(1):7–43Google Scholar
  31. Glaeser EL, Rosenthal SS, Strange WC (2010) Urban economics and entrepreneurship. J Urban Econ 67(1):1–14Google Scholar
  32. Gordon D, Pantazis C (eds) (1997) Breadline Britain in the 1990s. Ashgate Publishing Limited, EnglandGoogle Scholar
  33. Han J, Kamber M, Pei J (2012) Data mining: concepts and techniques, 3rd edn (The Morgan Kaufmann series in data management systems). Elsevier, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  34. Hendriks F (1999) The post-industrialising city: political perspectives and cultural biases. GeoJournal 47(3):425–432Google Scholar
  35. Isenberg DJ (2010) How to start an entrepreneurial revolution. Harvard Bus Rev 88(6):40–50Google Scholar
  36. Ivaldi E, Bonatti G, Soliani R (2016a) The measurement of well-being in the current era. Nova Publishers, New York. ISBN 978-1-53610-005-1Google Scholar
  37. Ivaldi E, Bonatti G, Soliani R (2016b) The construction of a synthetic index comparing multidimensional well-being in the European Union. Soc Indic Res 125(2):397–430Google Scholar
  38. Ivaldi E, Testi A (2011) Socio-economic conditions and health in Europe: a comparison among the 27 EU countries. In: Rosen J, Eliot AP (eds) Social inequalities. Nova Science Publishers, New York, pp 127–150Google Scholar
  39. Jarman B (1983) Identification of underprivileged areas. BMJ 286:1705–1709Google Scholar
  40. Knight R (1995) Knowledge-based development. Urban Stud 32(2):225–260Google Scholar
  41. Knight R (2008) Knowledge-based development. In: Yigitcanlar T, Velibeyoglu K, Baum S (eds) Knowledge-based urban development. IGI-Global, Hersey PA, pp 13–18Google Scholar
  42. Landi S, Ivaldi E, Testi A (2017) Measuring change over time in socio-economic deprivation and health in an urban context: the case study of Genoa. A. Soc Indic Res.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11205-017-1720-3Google Scholar
  43. Lever WF (2002) Correlating the knowledge-base of cities with economic growth. Urban Stud 39(5–6):859–870Google Scholar
  44. Levie J, Autio E, Ács Z, Hart M (2014) Global entrepreneurship and institutions: an introduction. Small Bus Econ 42(3):437–444Google Scholar
  45. López-Ruiz VR, Alfaro-Navarro JL, Nevado-Peña D (2014) Knowledge-city index construction: an intellectual capital perspective. Expert Syst Appl 41(12):5560–5572Google Scholar
  46. Madon S, Sahay S (2001) Cities in the developing world: linking global and local networks. Inf Technol People 14(3):273–286Google Scholar
  47. Maggino F (2009) Towards more participative methods in the construction of social indicators: survey techniques aimed at determining importance weights. In: Paper presented at the 62nd conference of the world association for public opinion research public opinion and survey research in a changing world. Swiss Foundation for Research in Social Sciences, University of Lausanne, September 11–13, 2009, Lausanne, Swiss, pp 1–24Google Scholar
  48. Mason C, Brown R (2014) Entrepreneurial ecosystems and growth oriented entrepreneurship. Final report to OECD, Paris, vol 30(1), pp 77–102. https://www.oecd.org/cfe/leed/Entrepreneurial-ecosystems.pdf. Accessed 20 Jan 2018
  49. McKee DL, McKee YA (2004) Edge cities, urban corridors and beyond. Int J Soc Econ 31(5/6):536–543Google Scholar
  50. Méndez R, Moral SS (2011) Spanish cities in the knowledge economy: theoretical debates and empirical evidence. Eur Urban Reg Stud 18(2):136–155Google Scholar
  51. Munda G, Nardo M (2005) Constructing consistent composite indicators: the issue of weights institute for the protection and security of the citizen. European CommunitiesGoogle Scholar
  52. Nardo M, Saisana M, Saltelli A, Tarantola S, Hoffman A, Giovannini E (2005) Handbook on constructing composite indicators: methodology and user guide. No. 2005/3. OECD Publishing, ParisGoogle Scholar
  53. Nayak P, Mishra SK (2012) Efficiency of Pena’s P2 distance in construction of human evelopment indices. MPRA—Munich Personal RePEc Archive, paper 39022. https://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/39022/1/MPRA_paper_39022.pdf. Accessed 20 Feb 2014
  54. Pena JB (1977) Problemas de la medición del bienestar y conceptos afines: (una aplicación al caso español). Instituto Nacional de Estadıstica (INE), MadridGoogle Scholar
  55. Penco L (2015) The development of the successful city in the knowledge economy: toward the dual role of consumer hub and knowledge hub. J Knowl Econ 6(4):818–837Google Scholar
  56. Perry B (2008) Academic knowledge and urban development. In: Yigitcanlar T, Velibeyoglu K, Baum S (eds) Knowledge-based urban development. IGI-Global, Hersey PA, pp 21–41Google Scholar
  57. Rosenthal SS, Strange WC (2004) Evidence on the nature and sources of agglomeration economies. In: Henderson JV, Thisse JF (eds) Handbook of regional and urban economics, vol 4. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 2119–2171Google Scholar
  58. Santagata M, Ivaldi E, Soliani R (2017) Development and governance in the ex-Soviet Union: an Empirical inquiry. Social indicator research.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11205-017-1815
  59. Sassen S (1991) The global city: New York, London. Princeton University Press, NJ, TokyoGoogle Scholar
  60. Sassen S (1994a) The urban complex in a world economy. Int Soc Sci J 139:43–62Google Scholar
  61. Sassen S (1994b) Global city: New York, London, Tokyo, vol 2. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJGoogle Scholar
  62. Somarriba N, Pena B (2009) Synthetic indicators of quality of life in Europe. Soc Indic Res 94:115–133Google Scholar
  63. Stam W, Arzlanian S, Elfring T (2014) Social capital of entrepreneurs and small firm performance: a meta-analysis of contextual and methodological moderators. J Bus Ventur 29(1):152–173Google Scholar
  64. Szerb LA, Ács Z, Autio E (2013) Entrepreneurship and policy: the national system of entrepreneurship in the European Union and in its member countries. Entrep Res J 3(1):9–34Google Scholar
  65. Turok I (2008) A new policy for Britain’s cities: choices, challenges, contradictions. Local Econ 23(2):149–166Google Scholar
  66. Warnaby G, Davies BJ (1997) Commentary: cities as service factories? Using the servuction system for marketing cities as shopping destinations. Int J Retail Distrib Manag 25(6):204–210Google Scholar
  67. Yigitcanlar T (2011) Position paper: redefining knowledge-based urban development. Int J Knowl Based Dev 2(4):340–356Google Scholar
  68. Yigitcanlar T (2014) Position paper: benchmarking the performance of global and emerging knowledge cities. Expert Syst Appl 41(12):5549–5559Google Scholar
  69. Yigitcanlar T, Bulu M (2015) Dubaization of Istanbul: insights from the knowledge-based urban development journey of an emerging local economy. Environ Plan A 47(1):89–107Google Scholar
  70. Yigitcanlar T, Lönnqvist A (2013) Benchmarking knowledge-based urban development performance: results from the international comparison of Helsinki. Cities 31:357–369Google Scholar
  71. Yigitcanlar T, Inkinen T, Makkonen T (2015) Does size matter? Knowledge-based development of second-order city-regions in Finland. disP Plan Rev 51(3):62–77Google Scholar
  72. Yigitcanlar T, O’connor K, Westerman C (2008) The making of knowledge cities: Melbourne’s knowledge-based urban development experience. Cities 25(2):63–72Google Scholar
  73. Yigitcanlar T, Velibeyoglu K, Martinez-Fernandez C (2008b) Rising knowledge cities: the role of urban knowledge precincts. J Knowl Manag 12(5):8–20Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Carolina Bruzzi
    • 1
  • Enrico Ivaldi
    • 2
    • 3
  • Enrico Musso
    • 4
  • Lara Penco
    • 5
    Email author
  1. 1.University of GenoaGenoaItaly
  2. 2.Department of Political Science, Centro de Investigaciones en Econometría – CIEUniversity of GenoaGenoaItaly
  3. 3.Universidad de Buenos AiresBuenos AiresArgentina
  4. 4.Department of Economics and Business Studies (DIEC), Italian Center of Excellence on Logistics Transport and Infrastructure (CIELI)University of GenoaGenoaItaly
  5. 5.Department of Economics and Business Studies (DIEC), Italian Center of Excellence on Logistics Transport and Infrastructure (CIELI)University of GenoaGenoaItaly

Personalised recommendations