Advertisement

Entrepreneurship in Chinese Cities in the Post-reform Era

  • Liou XieEmail author
Chapter
Part of the The Urban Book Series book series (UBS)

Abstract

This chapter reviews and summarizes the driving forces of urban entrepreneurship in China in the post-reform era. The objective is to answer questions pertaining to the current status and future trends of entrepreneurship, including What are the milestones in institutional restructuring and their significance? What are the political, economic, and social forces that have either positive or negative effects on urban entrepreneurship? And, how are these forces reflected in the current status of entrepreneurship? The chapter, however, raises concerns about tariff fights between two major exporting economies (US and China). It also suggests in-depth investigation of impacts of mutual tariff barriers on export-oriented entrepreneurs.

Keywords

Urban entrepreneurship China Post-reform era 

References

  1. Abramson NR, Ai JX (1997) Using guanxi-style buyer-seller relationships in China: reducing uncertainty and improving performance outcomes. Int Exec 39(6):765–804.  https://doi.org/10.1002/tie.5060390606CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bao H, Cen Y, Peng Y, Yuan D (2016) Entrepreneurship and intervention strategies of land-lost farmers in urbanization process of Zhejiang province. Public Pers Manag 45(1):37–57.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0091026016630399CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bao H, Peng Y (2016) Effect of land expropriation on land-lost farmers’ entrepreneurial action: a case study of Zhejiang Province. Habitat Int 53:342–349.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.habitatint.2015.12.008CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. China Statistical Yearbook. Various years. National Bureau of StatisticsGoogle Scholar
  5. Cong J (2009) Chinese informal financial systems and economic growth: a case study of China’s small and medium enterprises. Public Policy Rev 5(2):63–88Google Scholar
  6. Deng Z, Hofman PS, Newman A (2013) Ownership concentration and product innovation in Chinese private SMEs. Asia Pac J Manag 30(3):717–734.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10490-012-9301-0CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Dimov D (2017) Towards a qualitative understanding of human capital in entrepreneurship research. Int J Entrep Behav Res 23(2):210–227.  https://doi.org/10.1108/IJEBR-01-2016-0016CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Dong K (2009) Medical insurance system evolution in China. China Econ Rev 20(4):591–597.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chieco.2009.05.011CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Elston JA, Chen S, Weidinger A (2016) The role of informal capital on new venture formation and growth in China. Small Bus Econ 46(1):79–91.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11187-015-9674-9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Fan Y (2002) Questioning guanxi: definition, classification and implications. Int Bus Rev 11(5):543–561.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0969-5931(02)00036-7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Gilad B, Levine P (1986) A behavioral model of entrepreneurial supply. J Small Bus Manag 24(4):45–53Google Scholar
  12. Government Document 1 (1999) Opinions on establishing a venture investment mechanism. Jointly issued by the Ministry of Science and Technology, the State Development Planning Commission, the State Economic and Trade Commission, the People’s Bank of China, the Ministry of Finance, the State Administration of Taxation and the China Securities Regulatory Commission. Retrieved from http://www.gov.cn/gongbao/content/2000/content_60620.htm
  13. Gürol Y, Atsan N (2006) Entrepreneurial characteristics amongst university students: Some insights for entrepreneurship education and training in Turkey. Educ Training, 48(1):25–38.  https://doi.org/10.1108/00400910610645716CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Hu W (2013) How are officials performance evaluated. China Econ Wkl. Retrieved from http://www.ceweekly.cn/2013/1223/71634.shtml
  15. Hua X, Chen Y, Prashantham S (2016) Institutional logic dynamics: private firm financing in Ningbo (1912–2008). Bus Hist 58(3):378–407.  https://doi.org/10.1080/00076791.2015.1122707CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Huang Y (2008) Capitalism with Chinese characteristics. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Iacob SV (2015) Entrepreneurship support of economic growth in China. EcoForum 4(1):77–83Google Scholar
  18. Legal Document 1 (2017) Law of the People’s Republic of China on the promotion of small and medium-sized enterprises. Order of the president of the People’s Republic of China (No. 74). Retrieved from http://www.npc.gov.cn/englishnpc/Law/2007-12/06/content_1382128.htm
  19. Legal Document 2 (2007) The property law of the People’s Republic of China. Order of the president of the People’s Republic of China (No. 62). Retrieved from http://www.npc.gov.cn/englishnpc/Law/2009-02/20/content_1471118.htm
  20. Li H (2013) History and development of entrepreneurship in China. In Zhang T, Stough RR (eds) Entrepreneurship and economic growth in China. World Scientific, pp 13–34.  https://doi.org/10.1142/9789814273374_0002Google Scholar
  21. Li L, Wu X (2014) Housing price and entrepreneurship in China. J. Comp Econ 42(2):436–449.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jce.2013.09.001CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Liu A, Wang P (2005) Analysis on the Behavior And Choices Of Laid-Off Workers: The Case Of Xiamen. J Fujian Party Sch (in Chinese) 290:37–42Google Scholar
  23. Liu L, Zhang Y (2018) Does non-employment based health insurance promote entrepreneurship? Evidence from a policy experiment in China. J Comp Econ 46(1):270–283.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jce.2017.04.003CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Liu MJ, Huang J, Chong AY, Guan Z, Yannopoulou N (2015) Fellow-townsmenship as the mechanism for exploring and exploiting business opportunities: a longitudinal reflection of the nineteenth century Ningbo entrepreneurs in Shanghai. Bus Hist 57(6):773–799.  https://doi.org/10.1080/00076791.2014.962020CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Loo BPY, Chow SY (2006) China’s 1994 tax-sharing reforms: one system differential impact. Asian Surv 46(2):215–237.  https://doi.org/10.1525/as.2006.46.2.215CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Ma C (2017) Student entrepreneurship on the rise. China Daily. Retrieved from http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/china/2017-09/17/content_32108712.htm
  27. MyCOS Research (2017) Chinese four-year college graduates’ employment annual report 2017. MyCOS ResearchGoogle Scholar
  28. Newman A, Gunessee S, Hilton B (2012) Applicability of financial theories of capital structure to the Chinese cultural context: a study of privately owned SMEs. Int Small Bus J 30(1):65–83.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0266242610370977CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Peck J (2011) Geographies of policy: from transfer-diffusion to mobility-mutation. Prog Hum Geogr 35(6):773–797.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0309132510394010CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Qian W (2004) The legal risks and countermeasures for private enterprises (in Chinese). CITIC Publishing HouseGoogle Scholar
  31. Rodden J (2004) Comparative federalism and decentralization: on meaning and measurement. Comp Politics 36(4):481.  https://doi.org/10.2307/4150172CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Shane S (2000) Prior knowledge and the discovery of entrepreneurial opportunities. Organ Sci 11(4):448–469.  https://doi.org/10.1287/orsc.11.4.448.14602CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Spigel B (2017) The relational organization of entrepreneurial ecosystems. Entrep Theory Prac 41(1):49–72.  https://doi.org/10.1111/etap.12167CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. The Economist (2011) Bamboo capitalism: China’s success owes more to its entrepreneurs than its bureaucrats. Retrieved from https://www.economist.com/leaders/2011/03/10/bamboo-capitalism
  35. Tse E (2016) The rise of entrepreneurship in China. Forbes. Retrieved from https://www.forbes.com/sites/tseedward/2016/04/05/the-rise-of-entrepreneurship-in-china/#3a9dbcb03efc
  36. van der Kamp D, Lorentzen P, Mattingly D (2017) Racing to the bottom or to the top? Decentralization, revenue pressures, and governance reform in China. World Dev 95:164–176.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.worlddev.2017.02.021CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Wang, C. L. (2007) Guanxi vs. relationship marketing: exploring underlying differences. Ind Market Manag 36(1):81–86.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.indmarman.2005.08.002CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Wang L, Shen X (1989) Chinese interpersonal relations (in Chinese). Shanxi People’s Publishing House, TaiyuanGoogle Scholar
  39. Wei S-J, Zhang X (2011) The competitive saving motive: evidence from rising sex ratios and savings rates in China. J Polit Econ 119(3):511–564.  https://doi.org/10.1086/660887CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Wu P, Lu Q, Wang G (2004) A study on cultivated land loss and its driving forces in Beijing, 1981–2001. China Popul Resour Environ (in Chinese) 14(3):109–115Google Scholar
  41. Xinhua News (2017) Small and medium-sized enterprises account for 99% of all enterprises in China. Xinhua News. Retrieved from http://www.xinhuanet.com/fortune/2017-11/29/c_1122032239.htm
  42. You H (2017) Agricultural landscape dynamics in response to economic transition: comparisons between different spatial planning zones in Ningbo region, China. Land Use Policy 61:316–328.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.landusepol.2016.11.025CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. You Y, Zhu F, Ding X (2017) College student entrepreneurship in China: Results from a national survey of directors of career services in Chinese higher education institutions. Curr Issues Comp Educ 19(2):64–83Google Scholar
  44. Zhou D (2012) Chinese entrepreneurs go global. Technol Innov Manag Rev 28–31CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Zhou X (2017) China focus: support for entrepreneurship on the rise in Chinese education. Xinhua News. Retrieved from http://www.xinhuanet.com/english/2017-09/14/c_136609788.htm

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.State University of New YorkPlattsburgUSA

Personalised recommendations