Greening Energy Provision in Urban Pakistan

  • Sardar MohazzamEmail author
  • Ayesha Ali
  • Saleem H. Ali
Part of the The Urban Book Series book series (UBS)


Entrepreneurship for green energy provision in Pakistan is direly needed to ensure universal access to energy, diffusion of renewable energy, and improving energy efficiency. Pakistan’s per capita electricity consumption is less than 467 kWh, which is very low compared to other countries in the region. Employing the green technologies is already creating new markets and job opportunities. In most of the developing countries in the world, the green technologies adoption has been slow. While governments have shown commitment to integrating these technologies into the economy, we have not seen a visible shift in the prevalence of green technologies in most of the developing countries. As with any new technology, it is the private sector and the entrepreneur that play a key role in commercializing technological inventions and diffusing them. In this chapter, we assessed the effectiveness of macro factors such as institutions, policies, and regulations, and micro factors such as access to finance, inputs, and infrastructure, which affect the private sector’s decision to invest in renewable and green technologies for providing energy. This chapter concludes that current institutions and policies have focused on grid-scale investments in renewable energy, which were not able to attract substantial capital. We proposed the importance of integrated planning coupled with decentralization of policy implementation to the local city or district level, a stable policy and regulatory framework that would mitigate investor risk. We also emphasize that private-sector entrepreneurship will thrive with the provision of enabling goods such as smart infrastructure, financing, and addressing gaps in the research and development ecosystem.


Green technologies Pakistan Regulatory Electricity 


  1. Alternative Energy Development Board (2017). Accessed May 2018
  2. AEDB, Current status of wind projects. Accessed June 2018
  3. AEDB, Progress made so far on solar projects. Accessed June 2018
  4. AEDB, Current status of bagasse projects. Accessed June 2018
  5. AEDB, Current status of small hydro. Accessed June 2018
  6. Central Power Purchase Agency (CPPA G). Accessed Oct 2018
  7. Eckstein D, Künzel V, Schäfer L (2017) Global climate risk index 2018. Germanwatch. Accessed 23 Jan 2018
  8. Government of Pakistan (2017a) Pakistan hydrocarbon institute, “Pakistan energy year book”Google Scholar
  9. Government of Pakistan (2017b) Ministry of finance, economic survey of Pakistan 2017. Accessed June 2018
  10. Government of Pakistan (2017c) Pakistan bureau of statistics of Pakistan 2017. Accessed July 2018
  11. Government of Pakistan (2017d) Pakistan in the 21st century, vision 2030; planning commission, Islamabad, p 28Google Scholar
  12. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (2018) Special report on global warming of 1.5 °C (SR15). Accessed Sept 2018
  13. IRENA (2018) Renewables readiness assessment: Pakistan. Accessed Oct 2018
  14. Rogers EM (2010) Diffusion of innovations. Simon and SchusterGoogle Scholar
  15. UN-Habitat (2015) Ministry of climate change Accessed Sept 2018

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Energy and Environmental PolicyUniversity of DelawareNewarkUSA
  2. 2.Adjunct FacultyLahore University of Management SciencesLahorePakistan
  3. 3.Department of EconomicsLahore University of Management SciencesLahorePakistan
  4. 4.Blue and Gold Distinguished Professor of Energy and EnvironmentUniversity of DelawareNewarkUSA

Personalised recommendations