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Inflammation, Immunity, and Vaccine Development for the Gastric Pathogen Helicobacter pylori

  • Tamaki Ikuse
  • Thomas G. BlanchardEmail author
  • Steven J. Czinn
Chapter
Part of the Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology book series (CT MICROBIOLOGY, volume 421)

Abstract

It has been over 30 years since a link was established between H. pylori infection of the gastric mucosa and the development of chronic gastric diseases. Research in rodent models supported by data from human tissue demonstrated that the host immune response to H. pylori is limited by host regulatory T cells. Immunization has been shown to induce a potent Th1- and Th17-mediated immune response capable of eradicating or at least significantly reducing the bacterial load of H. pylori in the stomach in small animal models. These results have not translated well to humans. Clinical trials employing many of the strategies used in rodents for oral immunization including the use of a mucosal adjuvant such as Escherichia coli LT or delivery by attenuated enteric bacteria have failed to limit H. pylori infection and have highlighted the potential toxicity of exotoxin-based mucosal adjuvants. A recent study, however, utilizing a recombinant fusion protein of H. pylori urease and the subunit B of E. coli LT, was performed on over 4000 children. Efficacy of over 70% was demonstrated against naturally acquired infection compared to control volunteers one year post-immunization. Efficacy was reduced, but still above 50% at three years. This study provided new insight into the strategies for developing an improved vaccine for widespread use in countries with high infection rates and where gastric cancer (GC) remains one of the most common causes of death due to cancer.

Keywords

Helicobacter Vaccine Adjuvant IL-17 Immunity 

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tamaki Ikuse
    • 1
  • Thomas G. Blanchard
    • 2
    Email author
  • Steven J. Czinn
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Pediatric and Adolescent MedicineJuntendo University Graduate School of MedicineTokyoJapan
  2. 2.Department of PediatricsUniversity of Maryland School of MedicineBaltimoreUSA

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