Cytogenetical Analysis of Bitter Gourd Genome

Part of the Compendium of Plant Genomes book series (CPG)


There are many studies about chromosomal characteristics of Momordica charantia, known as bitter gourd, a vegetable species with medicinal properties. The published data include characterization of the meiosis; haploid and diploid chromosome number; description of chromosome morphology, with chromosome length and primary constriction position; more recently there has been a focus of cytomolecular investigations, with localization of ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequences and distribution pattern of heterochromatin bands. Usually, the M. charantia karyotype is presented as symmetric, composed of 22 small chromosomes with similar morphology, with two pairs of 45S rDNA, colocalized with CMA positive bands, and one pair of 5S rDNA. The chromosome counts for Momordica genus indicate two basic numbers: x = 11 and x = 14, dividing the genus into two groups with distinct characteristics. Polyploid counts were observed in both species’ groups. Variation in number and position of the cytogenetical markers were registered between the different species, evidenced by CMA fluorochrome banding. The karyotype evolution for Momordica may be related to the structural chromosome mutation associated with numeric chromosome variations.


Basic chromosome number FISH Heterochromatic banding Karyotype Meiosis 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Center for Natural and Human Sciences, Federal University of ABCSão Bernardo do CampoBrazil

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