Acquiring the Idea of Pure Logic as Pure Theory of Norms for Knowledge>
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The field of scientific studies to which I wish to devote these lectures can be designated in a generally understandable way by a single word. It is the understanding. The name of our discipline already indicates this. It signifies: the science of the logos. Understanding-or as it is frequently also synonymously called, reason-is a word for manifold mental activities and mental achievements that are already familiar to us from occasional experiences prior to any logic. Ordinary language possesses a wealth of relevant terms, <such as> conceptualizing, judging, thinking, substantiating, deducing, proving, and so forth, and correlative expressions such as concept, judgment, thought, deduction, proof, theory. The activities and accomplishments so designated span all areas of the life of the mind. Understanding reigns in all sciences and technical arts. Sciences are sciences in the genuine sense precisely insofar as the understanding governs their findings, giving form to them, and setting norms for them. It is what creates unity of theoretical knowledge out of unconnected experiences, out of isolated convictions, presumptions, inferences. Thanks to it, nature figures before our mind’s eye as a cosmos governed by laws. In all domains of nature, it unveils the inviolable system of laws that we call the theory of the particular field.