Advertisement

Periocular and Orbital Trauma

  • Raymond I. ChoEmail author
  • Sheri L. DeMartelaere
Chapter
  • 133 Downloads

Abstract

Injuries to the periocular structures and orbit are an extremely common component of ocular trauma. Specific injuries can include partial thickness and full thickness eyelid lacerations, canalicular lacerations, orbital foreign bodies, orbitofacial fractures, orbital compartment syndrome, carotid-cavernous fistula, periocular burns, and severe globe rupture necessitating globe removal. With the exception of orbital compartment syndrome, most periocular and orbital injuries can be managed on a non-emergent basis.

Keywords

Periocular trauma Orbital trauma Eyelid laceration Canalicular laceration Orbital fracture Orbital compartment syndrome Canthotomy cantholysis Facial fracture Carotid-cavernous fistula Periocular burns Enucleation Evisceration 

References

  1. 1.
    Hornblass A. Ocular war injuries in South Vietnam. Surg Forum. 1973;24:500–2.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Wade AL, Dye JL, Mohrle CR, Galarneau MR. Head, face, and neck injuries during Operation Iraqi Freedom II: results from the US Navy-Marine Corps Combat Trauma Registry. J Trauma. 2007;63:836–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Thach AB, Johnson AJ, Carroll RB, et al. Severe eye injuries in the war in Iraq, 2003-2005. Ophthalmology. 2008;155:377–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Cho RI, Kahana A, Patel B, et al. Orbital foreign body removal guided by intraoperative fluoroscopy. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg. 2009;25:215–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Golberg SH, Bullock JD, Connelly PJ. Eyelid avulsion: a clinical and experimental study. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg. 1992;4:256–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Cabalag MS, Wasiak J, Paul E, et al. Risk factors for ocular burn injuries requiring surgery. J Burn Care Res. 2017;38:71–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Czyz CN, Kalwerisky K, Stacey AW, et al. Initial treatment of ocular exposure and associated complications in severe periorbital thermal injuries. J Trauma. 2011;71:1455–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    O’Connor EF, Frew Q, Din A, et al. Periorbital burns – a 6 year review of management and outcome. Burns. 2015;41:616–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Savar A, Kirszrot J, Rubin PAD. Canalicular involvement in dog bite related eyelid lacerations. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg. 2008;24:296–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Reifler DM. Management of canalicular lacerations. Surv Ophthalmol. 1991;36:113–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Spinelli HM, Shapiro MD, Wei LL, et al. The role of lacrimal intubation in the management of facial trauma and tumor resection. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2005;115:1871–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Yung CW, Moorthy RS, Lindley D, et al. Efficacy of lateral canthotomy and cantholysis in orbital hemorrhage. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg. 1994;10:137–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Hayreh SS, Kolder HE, Weingeist TA. Central retinal artery occlusion and retinal tolerance time. Ophthalmology. 1980;87:75–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Burkat CN, Lemke BN. Retrobulbar hemorrhage: inferolateral anterior orbitotomy for emergent management. Arch Ophthalmol. 2005;123:1260–2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Ho VH, Wilson MW, Fleming JC, Haik BG. Retained intraorbital foreign bodies. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg. 2004;20:232–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Cho RI, Bakken HE, Reynolds ME, et al. Concomitant cranial and ocular combat injuries during Operation Iraqi Freedom. J Trauma. 2009;67:516–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Burnstine MA. Clinical recommendations for repair of orbital facial fractures. Curr Opin Ophthalmol. 2003;14:236–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Antonelli V, Cremonini AM, Campobassi A, et al. Traumatic encephalocele related to orbital roof fractures: report of six cases and literature review. Surg Neurol. 2002;57:117–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Cayli SR, Kocak A, Alkan A, et al. Intraorbital encephalocele: an important complication of orbital roof fractures in pediatric patients. Pediatr Neurosurg. 2003;39:240–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Ellis EE, Reddy L. Status of the internal orbital after reduction of zygomaticomaxillary complex fractures. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2004;62:275–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Markowitz BL, Manson PN, Sargent L, et al. Management of the medial canthal tendon in nasoethmoid orbital fractures: the importance of the central fragment in classification and treatment. Plast Reconstr Surg. 1991;87:843–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Fattahi TT, Brandt MT, Jenkins WS, Steinberg B. Traumatic carotid-cavernous fistula: pathophysiology and treatment. J Craniofac Surg. 2003;14:240–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Savar A, Andreoli MT, Kloek CE, Andreoli CM. Enucleation for open globe injury. Am J Ophthalmol. 2009;147:595–600.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Kaltreider SA, Lucarelli MJ. A simple algorithm for selection of implant size for enucleation and evisceration: a prospective study. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg. 2002;18:336–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Migliori ME. Enucleation versus evisceration. Curr Opin Ophthalmol. 2002;13:298–302.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Bilyk JR. Enucleation, evisceration, and sympathetic ophthalmia. Curr Opin Ophthalmol. 2000;11:372–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Jordan DR, Stoica B. Evisceration with implant placement posterior to posterior sclera. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg. 2016;32:178–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Savitsky E, Eastridge BJ, editors. Combat casualty care: lessons learned from OEF and OIF. Fort Detrick: Borden Institute; 2012.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.COL (RET), MC, US Army, The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, Department of Ophthalmology and Visual ScienceColumbusUSA
  2. 2.COL (RET), MC, US Army, San Antonio Military Medical Center, Department of SurgerySan AntonioUSA

Personalised recommendations