Eye Armor

  • Thomas P. Ward
  • Francis G. La Piana


Attempts to protect the soldier’s body in armor have been made at least since the fifth millennium BC but attempts to protect the eyes only gained momentum in the past century. Up until the late twentieth century, the great majority of emmetropic American infantry men, the soldiers most at risk, entered combat with their eyes as exposed to the hazards of war as were the eyes of the first combatants. This chapter is an account of the multi-decade effort to develop eye protection for the American infantry man, an effort that finally resulted in effective eye armor that was accepted by the soldier in combat.


Eye armor Eye protection Infantrymen 



This work is dedicated to the memory of John Harry King, MD, FACS (COL, MC, USA, Ret), ophthalmologist, soldier, mentor, and friend who serves as an example for all military ophthalmologists.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Thomas P. Ward
    • 1
  • Francis G. La Piana
    • 2
  1. 1.COL (RET), MC, US Army, Hartford Hospital, Department of OphthalmologyHartfordUSA
  2. 2.COL (RET), MC, US Army, Washington Hospital CenterWashington, DCUSA

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