Pediatric Ophthalmology

  • William R. RaymondIVEmail author
  • Christiaan Kroesen
  • Richard H. Birdsong


In the United States, other estimates are as high as 840,000 eye injuries annually in the 18-and-younger population (Brophy et al., Pediatrics 117(6):e1263–e1271, 2006). Most of these children are initially evaluated in the Emergency Department setting, and 95% of the injuries do not require hospitalization (Abbott and Shah, Surv Ophthalmol 58(5):476–485, 2013). Indeed, many minor eye injuries will not come to the attention of the ophthalmologist. While the ultimate management of trauma in children is similar to that in adults in many respects, pediatric ocular trauma has many unique aspects we intend to define in the following pages.


Pediatric ophthalmology Military casualty Civilian casualty 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • William R. RaymondIV
    • 1
    Email author
  • Christiaan Kroesen
    • 2
  • Richard H. Birdsong
    • 3
  1. 1.COL (RET), MC, US Army, Madigan Army Medical Center, Department of SurgeryTacomaUSA
  2. 2.CPT, MC, US Army, Madigan Army Medical Center, Department of OphthalmologyTacomaUSA
  3. 3.COL (RET), MC, US Army, Children’s National Medical Center, Department of OphthalmologyWashington, DCUSA

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