Neuro-Ophthalmic Manifestations of Trauma

  • Sarah J. Kim
  • Prem S. SubramanianEmail author
  • Kimberly P. Cockerham


Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is an important cause of cognitive impairment and disability, imposing a burden on public health resources worldwide. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) define TBI as craniocerebral trauma occurring from an injury to the head from blunt, penetrating, or acceleration/deceleration forces (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control; Marr and Coronado, Central nervous system injury surveillance data submission standards—2002. National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Atlanta, GA, 2004). TBI is a structural or physiological disruption of brain function accompanied by at least one of the following: loss of or decreased level of consciousness, amnesia, alteration in mental state (confusion, disorientation), neurologic defects (weakness, loss of balance, change in vision, praxis, paresis, sensory loss, aphasia), or intracranial lesion. Common causes of TBI in the civilian population include motor vehicle accidents, falls, assault, and sports injuries. It is estimated that in 2013, 2.8 million people in the USA sought emergency department care, were hospitalized, or died from TBI-related injuries.


Traumatic brain injury (TBI) Optic neuropathy (TON) Cranial nerve palsy Diplopia 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sarah J. Kim
    • 1
  • Prem S. Subramanian
    • 2
    Email author
  • Kimberly P. Cockerham
    • 3
  1. 1.Central Valley Eye Medical GroupStocktonUSA
  2. 2.University of Colorado School of Medicine, Department of OphthalmologyAuroraUSA
  3. 3.LTC(P), MC, US Army, Stanford University, Department of OphthalmologyStocktonUSA

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