Advertisement

Undoing International Peacebuilding from Below?

  • Roberto BelloniEmail author
Chapter
  • 238 Downloads
Part of the Rethinking Peace and Conflict Studies book series (RCS)

Abstract

Since the early 2010s, a wave of protests advancing social, economic and political demands has erupted throughout the Balkans. The protesters have generally not attacked values cherished by the EU, such as democracy and economic modernization; rather, they have demanded that these values be implemented by taking citizens’ needs into account. They have offered a ‘counter-transition’ to the endless peacebuilding process involving a ruinous interconnection of ethno-national politics and neoliberal restructuring. In dissecting these dynamics, this chapter focuses on the case of Bosnia-Herzegovina, which is particularly significant both because Bosnians have long been identified as passive and apathetic and because this country experienced in 2014 the most important social upheaval in the region. It concludes with an analysis of the international actor’s disappointing response to citizens’ demands.

Keywords

Social movements Citizen activism Domestic agency 

References

  1. Al Jazeera. (2013, June 11). Thousands protest over Bosnia-Herzegovina baby ID row.Google Scholar
  2. Armakolas, I. (2011). The ‘Paradox’ of Tuzla city: Explaining non-nationalist local politics during the Bosniaan War. Europe-Asia Studies, 63(2), 229–261.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Arsenijević, D. (Ed.). (2014a). Unbribable Bosnia and Herzegovina: The fight for the commons. Baden-Baden: Nomos.Google Scholar
  4. Arsenijević, D. (2014b). Protests and plenums: The Struggle for the commons. In D. Arsenijević (Ed.), Unbribable Bosnia and Herzegovina: The fight for the commons (pp. 45–50). Nomos: Baden-Baden.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Belloni, R. (2008). Civil society in war-to-democracy transitions. In A. K. Jarstad & T. D. Sisk (Eds.), From war to democracy: Dilemmas of peacebuilding (pp. 182–210). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Belloni, R., & Ramović, J. (2019, forthcoming). Elites and everyday social contracts in Bosnia and Herzegovina: Pathways to forging a national social contract? Journal of Intervention and Statebuilding.Google Scholar
  7. Bennet, C. (2016). Bosnia’s paralysed peace. London: Hurst & CO.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bieber, F., & Brentin, D. (Eds.). (2019). Social movements in the Balkans: Rebellion and protest from Maribor to Taksim. London and New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  9. Bilić, B. (2012). We were gasping for air. Baden-Baden: Nomos.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Brković, Č. (2015). Management of ambiguity: Favours and flexiblity in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Social Anthropology, 23(3), 268–282.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Busuladžić, E. (2014). Why? In D. Arsenijević (Ed.), Unbribable Bosnia and Herzegovina: The fight for the commons (pp. 11–26). Baden-Baden: Nomos.Google Scholar
  12. Campbell, D. (1998). National deconstruction: Violence, identity and justice in Bosnia-Herzegovina. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.Google Scholar
  13. Capussela, A. L. (2015). State-building in Kosovo: Democracy, corruption and the EU in the Balkans. London and New York: I. B. Tauris.Google Scholar
  14. Chandler, D. (2006). From Dayton to Europe. In D. Chandler (Ed.), Peace without politics? Ten years of international state-building in Bosnia-Herzegovina (pp. 30–43). London and New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  15. Cooley, L. (2019). The European Union’s approach to conflict resolution: Transformation or regulation in the Western Balkans? London and New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  16. Delegation of the European Union to Bosnia and Herzegovina. (2015a). Compact for growth and jobs—Youth unemployment and perspectives in Bosnia-Herzegovina. Sarajevo.Google Scholar
  17. Delegation of the European Union to Bosnia-Herzegovina and Herzegovina. (2015b). Reform agenda for Bosnia and Herzegovina 2015–2018. Sarajevo.Google Scholar
  18. Della Porta, D., & Diani, M. (2006). Social movements: An introduction. Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  19. Dragojlović, M. (2015, November 18). Mile Radisić willingly surrendered himself to serve his sentence. Independent Balkan News Agency.Google Scholar
  20. European Council. (2016). Council conclusions on the application of Bosnia and Herzegovina for membership of the EU. Press Release, 525/16, 20/09/2016.Google Scholar
  21. European Union. (2014). Compact for growth and jobs: Brochure. Sarajevo: European Union.Google Scholar
  22. Gallup. (2014, October). Global states of mind (Resource document). www.gallup.com. Accessed 5 December 2016.
  23. Greble, E. (2011). Sarajevo, 1941–1945: Muslims, Christians and Jews in Hitler’s Europe. Ithaca and New York: Cornell University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Helms, E. (2013). Innocence and victimhood: Gender, nation and women’s activism in post-war Bosnia and Herzegovina. Madison: The University of Wisconsin Press.Google Scholar
  25. Hemon, A. (2014). Beyond the hopelessness of survival. In D. Arsenijević (Ed.), Unbribable Bosnia-Herzegovina (pp. 59–64). Baden-Baden: Nomos.Google Scholar
  26. Horvat, S., & Štiks, I. (Eds.). (2015). Welcome to the desert of post-socialism: Radical politics after Yugoslavia. London: Verso.Google Scholar
  27. Hromadžić, A. (2015). Citizens of an empty nation: Youth and statemaking in post-war Bosnia-Herzegovina. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.Google Scholar
  28. Hulsey, J. W. (2010). ‘Why did they vote for those guys again?’ Challenges and contradictions in the promotion of political moderation in post-war Bosnia and Herzegovina. Democratization, 17(6), 1132–1152.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Husarić, H. (2014). February awakening: Breaking with the political legacy of the last 20 Years. In D. Arsenijević (Ed.), Unbribable Bosnia and Herzegovina: The fight for the commons (pp. 65–70). Baden-Baden: Nomos.Google Scholar
  30. Jansen, S. (2014, February 13). Can the revolt in Bosnia and Herzegovina send a message to the wider world? Balkan Insight.Google Scholar
  31. Jansen, S. (2015). Yearnings in the meantime: ‘Normal lives’ and the state in a Sarajevo apartment complex. New York: Berghahn Books.Google Scholar
  32. Jansen, S., Brković, Č., & Čelebičić, V. (Eds.). (2017). Negotiating social relations in Bosnia and Herzegovina: Semiperipheral entanglements. Abingdon: Routledge.Google Scholar
  33. Jukić, E. M. (2013, June 5). Bosnia-Herzegovina’s feuding leaders give ground on ID row. Balkan Insight.Google Scholar
  34. Jukić, E. M. (2014, February 18). Füle Blames Bosnian leaders for rights logjam. Balkan Insight. http://www.balkaninsight.com/en/article/no-results-in-rights-ruling-meeting-in-sarajevo.
  35. Kappler, S. (2014). Local agency and peacebuilding: EU and international engagement in Bosnia-Herzegovina, Cyprus and South Africa. Houndmills: Palgrave.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Kurtović, L. (2014). The strange life and death of democracy promotion in Bosnia and Herzegovina. In D. Arsenijević (Ed.), Unbribable Bosnia and Herzegovina: The fight for the commons (pp. 97–102). Baden-Baden: Nomos.Google Scholar
  37. Kurtović, L., & Hromadžić, A. (2017). Cannibal states, empty bellies: Protests, history and political imagination in post-Dayton Bosnia-Herzegovina. Critique of Anthropology, 37(3), 262–296.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Lefebvre, H. (1991). The production of space. Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  39. Mac Ginty, R., & Richmond, O. P. (2013). The local turn in peacebuilding: A critical agenda for peace. Third World Quarterly, 34(5), 763–783.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Milan, C. (2018). Rising against the thieves: Anti-corruption campaigns in South-Eastern Europe. Partecipazione e Conflitto, 10(3), 826–849.Google Scholar
  41. Moraca, T. (2016, August). Between defiance and compliance: A new civil society in the post-Yugoslav space? (Occasional Paper). Rovereto: Osservatorio Balcani e Caucaso.Google Scholar
  42. Mujanović, J. (2018). Hunger and fury: The crisis of democracy in the Balkans. London: Hurst & Co.Google Scholar
  43. Mujkić, A. (2015). In search of a democratic counter-power in Bosnia-Herzegovina. Southeast European and Black Sea Studies, 15(4), 623–638.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Murtagh, C. (2016). Civic mobilization in divided societies and the perils of political engagement. Nationalism and Ethnic Politics, 22(2), 149–171.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Papić, Ž. (2015). Consensus on the common good. In A. Kapetanović & J. Illerhues (Eds.), The legacy of peace: Bosnia and Herzegovina 20 years after the Dayton peace accords (pp. 161–180). Sarajevo: Friedrich Ebert-Stiftung.Google Scholar
  46. Perry, V. (2015). Constitutional reform in Bosnia and Herzegovina: Does the road to confederation go through the EU? International Peacekeeping, 22(5), 490–510.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Petrović, T. (2011, September). Thinking Europe without thinking: Neo-colonial discourse on and in the Western Balkans (Resource document). Eurozine. http://www.eurozine.com/articles/2011-09-22-petrovic-en.html. Accessed 5 December 2016.
  48. Puljek-Shank, R., & Fritsch, F. (2018). Activism in Bosnia-Herzegovina: Struggles against dual hegemony and the emergence of ‘local first’. East European Politics and Societies, 20(10), 1–22.Google Scholar
  49. Puljek-Shank, R., & Verkoren, W. (2016). Civil society in a divided society: Linking legitimacy and ethnicness of civil society organizations in Bosnia-Herzegovina. Cooperation and Conflict, 52(2), 184–202.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Radio Free Europe. (2014, October 16). Putin vows to support Serbia on Kosovo.Google Scholar
  51. Radovanović, M. (2015). Bosnia and Herzegovina’s quantitative easing. In A. Kapetanović & J. Illerhues (Eds.), The legacy of peace: Bosnia and Herzegovina 20 years after the Dayton peace accords (pp. 143–160). Sarajevo: Friedrich Ebert Stiftung.Google Scholar
  52. Ramović, J. (2017, April). Maximum profit, minimal peace: Insights into the peacebuilding potential of peace. Unpublished Ph.D. Thesis, University of Manchester.Google Scholar
  53. Razsa, M. (2015). Bastards of utopia: Living radical politics after socialism. Bloomington and Indianapolis: Indiana University Press.Google Scholar
  54. RCC (Regional Cooperation Council). (2016). Balkan barometer 2016. Sarajevo: RCC Secretariat.Google Scholar
  55. Richmond, O. P. (2011). A post-liberal peace. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  56. Richmond, O. P. (2016). Peace formation and political order in conflict affected societies. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Riding, J. (2018). A new regional geography of a revolution: Bosnia-Herzegovina’s plenum movement. Territory, Politics, Governance, 6(1), 16–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Scott, J. C. (1990). Domination and the arts of resistance: Hidden transcripts. New Haven and London: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  59. Selimbegović, V. (2014, February 16). Interview with HR Valentin Inzko. Oslobođenje. http://www.ohr.int/ohr-dept/presso/pressi/default.asp?content_id=48419.
  60. Spaskokska, L. (2012). Landscapes of resistance, hope, and loss: Yugoslav supra-nationalism and anti-nationalism. In B. Bilić & V. Jankovic (Eds.), Resisting the evil: (Post-)Yugoslav anti-war contention (pp. 37–61). Baden-Baden: Nomos.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Todorova, M. (1997). Imagining the Balkans. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  62. Touquet, H., & Vermeersch, P. (2008). Bosnia and Herzegovina: Thinking beyond institution building. Nationalism & Ethnic Politics, 14(2), 266–288.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. UNDP (United Nations Development Programme). (2009). The ties that bind: Social capital in Bosnia-Herzegovina. Sarajevo: UNDP.Google Scholar
  64. UNRCOiBH (United Nations Resident Coordinator’s Office in Bosnia-Herzegovina and Herzegovina). (2015). Public opinion poll results. Sarajevo.Google Scholar
  65. Visoka, G. (2017). Shaping peace in Kosovo: The politics of peacebuilding and statehood. Houndmills: Palgrave.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Weber, B., & Bassuener, K. (2014). EU policies boomerang: Bosnia and Herzegovina’s social unrest. Sarajevo and Berlin: Democratization Policy Council, Policy Brief.Google Scholar
  67. Wimmen, H. (2019). Divided they stand: Peace building, state reconstruction and informal political movements in Bosnia-Herzegovina, 2005–2013. In F. Bieber & D. Brentin (Eds.), Social movements in the Balkans: Rebellion and protest from Maribor and Taksim (pp. 9–29). London and New York: Routledge.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Sociology and Social ResearchUniversity of TrentoTrentoItaly

Personalised recommendations