Management of Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment in European Union Countries: A Comparison Chapter First Online: 05 June 2019
Part of the
Environmental Chemistry for a Sustainable World
book series (ECSW, volume 33) Abstract
Over the last decades, the increasing volume of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) has become a major matter of concern worldwide. In the European case, a specific legislation has been developed in order to address the environmental problems associated with the proper management of this particular form of hazardous waste (Directive 2012/19/EU). Accordingly, it has introduced specific targets for the reuse and recycling and recovery of WEEE, which European countries should include in their national policies.
The aim of this chapter is to contribute to the literature on the management of WEEE by comparing the performance of the different European Union countries according to the targets set in the regulation of the Union’s environmental policy on WEEE. To this end, we use the traditional nonparametric Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) in order to measure technical efficiency for the first time in the literature. We use a sample of 30 European countries for the year 2014, with the purpose of comparing their performance, ranking the countries, and identifying their level of inefficiency. Our results suggest that European countries are highly efficient in the implementation of the WEEE Directive and management of the recycling and recovery of WEEE. However, considering the performance of different waste categories, we observe significant differences in WEEE efficiency among countries. Specifically, more efforts are needed to achieve higher efficiency levels from small equipment, lights, electrical and electronic tools, and medical devices.
Keywords Cross-country comparison Data Envelopment Analysis Efficiency measurement Environmental regulation Environmental challenges European Directives European Union E-waste Management policy Nonparametric methods Waste electrical and electronic equipment References
Abbott M, Cohen B (2009) Productivity and efficiency in the water industry. Util Policy 17(3–4):233–244.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jup.2009.05.001 CrossRef Google Scholar
Achillas C, Aidonis D, Vlachokostas C, Karagiannidis A, Moussiopoulos N, Loulos V (2013) Depth of manual dismantling analysis: a cost–benefit approach. Waste Manag 33(4):948–956.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wasman.2012.12.024 CrossRef Google Scholar
Aigner DJ, Chu S-F (1968) On estimating the industry production function. Am Econ Rev 58(4):826–839
Aigner D, Lovell CK, Schmidt P (1977) Formulation and estimation of stochastic frontier production function models. J Econ 6(1):21–37.
https://doi.org/10.1016/0304-4076(77)90052-5 CrossRef Google Scholar
Barba-Gutiérrez Y, Adenso-Diaz B, Hopp M (2008) An analysis of some environmental consequences of European electrical and electronic waste regulation. Resour Conserv Recycl 52(3):481–495.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.resconrec.2007.06.002 CrossRef Google Scholar
Borthakur A, Govind M (2017) Emerging trends in consumers’ E-waste disposal behaviour and awareness: a worldwide overview with special focus on India. Resour Conserv Recycl 117:102–113.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.resconrec.2016.11.011 CrossRef Google Scholar
Charnes A, Cooper WW, Rhodes E (1978) Measuring the efficiency of decision making units. Eur J Oper Res 2(6):429–444.
https://doi.org/10.1016/0377-2217(78)90138-8 CrossRef Google Scholar
Chi X, Wang MY, Reuter MA (2014) E-waste collection channels and household recycling behaviors in Taizhou of China. J Clean Prod 80:87–95.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2014.05.056 CrossRef Google Scholar
Colesca S, Ciocoiu C, Popescu M (2014) Determinants of WEEE recycling behaviour in Romania: a fuzzy approach. Int J Environ Res 8(2):353–366.
https://doi.org/10.22059/IJER.2014.726 CrossRef Google Scholar
Cucchiella F, D’Adamo I, Koh SL, Rosa P (2015) Recycling of WEEEs: an economic assessment of present and future e-waste streams. Renew Sust Energ Rev 51:263–272.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2015.06.010 CrossRef Google Scholar
De Oliveira CR, Bernardes AM, Gerbase AE (2012) Collection and recycling of electronic scrap: a worldwide overview and comparison with the Brazilian situation. Waste Manag 32(8):1592–1610.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wasman.2012.04.003 CrossRef Google Scholar
Debreu G (1951) The coefficient of resource utilization. Econometrica 19(3):273–292.
https://doi.org/10.2307/1906814 CrossRef Google Scholar
Färe R, Grosskopf S, Logan J (1985) The relative performance of publicly-owned and privately-owned electric utilities. J Public Econ 26(1):89–106.
https://doi.org/10.1016/0047-2727(85)90040-4 CrossRef Google Scholar
Färe R, Grosskopf S, Lovell CK, Pasurka C (1989) Multilateral productivity comparisons when some outputs are undesirable: a nonparametric approach. Rev Econ Stat 71:90–98.
https://doi.org/10.2307/1928055 CrossRef Google Scholar
Farrell M (1957) The measurement of productive efficiency. J R Stat Soc 120(III):253–281.
https://doi.org/10.2307/2343100 CrossRef Google Scholar
Goosey M (2004) End-of-life electronics legislation–an industry perspective. Circuit World 30(2):41–45.
https://doi.org/10.1108/03056120410512235 CrossRef Google Scholar
Gregory JR, Kirchain RE (2008) A framework for evaluating the economic performance of recycling systems: a case study of North American electronics recycling systems. Environ Sci Technol 42(18):6800–6808.
https://doi.org/10.1021/es702666v CrossRef Google Scholar
Khetriwal DS, Widmer R, Kuehr R, Huisman J (2011) One WEEE, many species: lessons from the European experience. Waste Manag Res 29(9):954–962.
https://doi.org/10.1177/0734242X11413327 CrossRef Google Scholar
Kiatkittipong W, Wongsuchoto P, Meevasana K, Pavasant P (2008) When to buy new electrical/electronic products? J Clean Prod 16(13):1339–1345.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2007.06.019 CrossRef Google Scholar
Kiddee P, Naidu R, Wong MH (2013) Electronic waste management approaches: an overview. Waste Manag 33(5):1237–1250.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wasman.2013.01.006 CrossRef Google Scholar
Koopmans TC (1951) Analysis of production as an efficient combination of activities. Anal Prod Alloc 173(3):33–97.
https://doi.org/10.2307/2226909 CrossRef Google Scholar
Li J, Liu L, Zhao N, Yu K, Zheng L et al (2013) Regional or global WEEE recycling. Where to go? Waste Manag 33(4):923–934.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wasman.2012.11.011 CrossRef Google Scholar
Liu X, Tanaka M, Matsui Y (2009) Economic evaluation of optional recycling processes for waste electronic home appliances. J Clean Prod 17(1):53–60.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2008.03.005 CrossRef Google Scholar
Lovell CK (1996) Applying efficiency measurement techniques to the measurement of productivity change. J Prod Anal 7(2–3):329–340.
https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00157047 CrossRef Google Scholar
Marques RC, Simões P (2009) Incentive regulation and performance measurement of the Portuguese solid waste management services. Waste Manag Res 27(2):188–196.
https://doi.org/10.1177/0734242X08095025 CrossRef Google Scholar
Meeusen W, Van den Broek J (1977) Efficiency estimation from Cobb-Douglas production function with composed error. Int Econ Rev 8:435–444.
https://doi.org/10.2307/2525757 CrossRef Google Scholar
Ongondo FO, Williams ID, Cherrett TJ (2011) How are WEEE doing? A global review of the management of electrical and electronic wastes. Waste Manag 31(4):714–730.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wasman.2010.10.023 CrossRef Google Scholar
Pérez-Belis V, Bovea M, Ibáñez-Forés V (2015) An in-depth literature review of the waste electrical and electronic equipment context: trends and evolution. Waste Manag Res 33(1):3–29.
https://doi.org/10.1177/0734242X14557382 CrossRef Google Scholar
Pérez-Belis V, Braulio-Gonzalo M, Juan P, Bovea MD (2017) Consumer attitude towards the repair and the second-hand purchase of small household electrical and electronic equipment. A Spanish case study. J Clean Prod 158:261–275.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2017.04.143 CrossRef Google Scholar
Picazo-Tadeo AJ, Prior D (2009) Environmental externalities and efficiency measurement. J Environ Manag 90(11):3332–3339.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2009.05.015 CrossRef Google Scholar
Picazo-Tadeo AJ, Beltrán-Esteve M, Gómez-Limón JA (2012) Assessing eco- efficiency with directional distance functions. Eur J Oper Res 220(3):798–809.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejor.2012.02.025 CrossRef Google Scholar
Popescu M-L (2014) Waste electrical and electronic equipment management in Romania: harmonizing national environmental law with European legislation. Administratie si Management Public 188(22):65–72.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2015.03.389 CrossRef Google Scholar
Robinson BH (2009) E-waste: an assessment of global production and environmental impacts. Sci Total Environ 408(2):183–191.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2009.09.044 CrossRef Google Scholar
Rogge N, De Jaeger S (2012) Evaluating the efficiency of municipalities in collecting and processing municipal solid waste: a shared input DEA-model. Waste Manag 32(10):1968–1978.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wasman.2012.05.021 CrossRef Google Scholar
Sala-Garrido R, Molinos-Senante M, Hernández-Sancho F (2011) Comparing the efficiency of wastewater treatment technologies through a DEA metafrontier model. Chem Eng J 173(3):766–772.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2011.08.047 CrossRef Google Scholar
Saphores J-DM, Nixon H, Ogunseitan OA, Shapiro AA (2006) Household willingness to recycle electronic waste: an application to California. Environ Behav 38(2):183–208.
https://doi.org/10.1177/0013916505279045 CrossRef Google Scholar
Shephard R (1970) Theory of cost and production function. Princeton University Press.
https://doi.org/10.2307/2230285 CrossRef Google Scholar
Shumon MRH, Ahmed S, Islam MT (2014) Electronic waste: present status and future perspectives of sustainable management practices in Malaysia. Environ Earth Sci 72(7):2239–2249.
https://doi.org/10.1007/s12665-014-3129-5 CrossRef Google Scholar
Stevels A, Ram A, Deckers E (1999) Take-back of discarded consumer electronic products from the perspective of the producer: conditions for success. J Clean Prod 7(5):383–389.
https://doi.org/10.1016/S0959-6526(99)00152-3 CrossRef Google Scholar
Sueyoshi T, Goto M (2011) Measurement of returns to scale and damages to scale for DEA-based operational and environmental assessment: how to manage desirable (good) and undesirable (bad) outputs? Eur J Oper Res 211(1):76–89.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejor.2010.11.013 CrossRef Google Scholar
Torretta V, Ragazzi M, Istrate IA, Rada EC (2013) Management of waste electrical and electronic equipment in two EU countries: a comparison. Waste Manag 33(1):117–122.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wasman.2012.07.029 CrossRef Google Scholar
Townsend TG (2011) Environmental issues and management strategies for waste electronic and electrical equipment. J Air Waste Manag Assoc 61(6):587–610.
https://doi.org/10.3155/1047-3222.214.171.1247 CrossRef Google Scholar
Truttmann N, Rechberger H (2006) Contribution to resource conservation by reuse of electrical and electronic household appliances. Resour Conserv Recycl 48(3):249–262.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.resconrec.2006.02.003 CrossRef Google Scholar
Wäger P, Hischier R, Eugster M (2011) Environmental impacts of the Swiss collection and recovery systems for waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE): a follow-up. Sci Total Environ 409(10):1746–1756.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2011.01.050 CrossRef Google Scholar
Wang J, Guo X (2006) Impact of electronic wastes recycling on environmental quality. Biomed Environ Sci 19(2):137. PMID: 16827186
Wang Z, Guo D, Wang X (2016) Determinants of residents’ e-waste recycling behaviour intentions: evidence from China. J Clean Prod 137:850–860.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2016.07.155 CrossRef Google Scholar
Ylä-Mella J, Poikela K, Lehtinen U, Keiski RL, Pongrácz E (2014) Implementation of waste electrical and electronic equipment directive in Finland: evaluation of the collection network and challenges of the effective WEEE management. Resour Conserv Recycl 86:38–46.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.resconrec.2014.02.001 CrossRef Google Scholar
Yu J, Welford R, Hills P (2006) Industry responses to EU WEEE and ROHS directives: perspectives from China. Corp Soc Responsib Environ Manag 13(5):286–299.
https://doi.org/10.1002/csr.131 CrossRef Google Scholar
Zeng X, Li J, Stevels A, Liu L (2013) Perspective of electronic waste management in China based on a legislation comparison between China and the EU. J Clean Prod 51:80–87.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2012.09.030 CrossRef Google Scholar Copyright information
© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020