Sporadic Ovarian and Fallopian Tube Cancer in Postmenopausal Women

  • Faustino R. Pérez-LópezEmail author


Sporadic (non-hereditary) ovarian cancer is highly prevalent during the second half of life. Unfortunately, to date there are no useful strategies for its early diagnosis, and it is the most lethal gynecological malignancy. In many cases, the disease may start in the fallopian tubes and malignant cells migrate to implant in the ovary. This fact has determined the recommendation to carry out opportunistic salpingectomy as a general preventive measure in women who have completed their childbearing. Other modifiable ovarian cancer risk factors include (1) maintaining a normal body mass index and avoid gaining>5 kg/m2; (2) avoiding cigarette consumption; (3) appropriate treatment and follow-up of endometriosis, pelvic inflammatory disease, and previous ovarian borderline tumors; and (4) the maintaining of physical activity. Other recommendations include (1) encouraging breastfeeding for at least 1 year; (2) the use of combined oral contraceptives; (3) performing salpingectomy instead of just tubal ligation; (4) using low-fat diets for at least 4 years; and (5) consuming moderate amounts of red wine and the use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatories.


Assisted reproductive technology Breastfeeding Endometriosis Epithelial ovarian cancer Fallopian tube cancer Menopause hormonal therapy Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs Oral contraceptives Ovarian cancer Pelvic inflammatory disease Peritoneal cancer Salpingectomy Talc powder Tubal ligation 



Anti-Müllerian hormone


Body mass index


Combined oral contraceptives


Epithelial ovarian carcinomas


European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition


Hazard ratio


Insulin growth factor


Insulin growth factor binding protein


Menopausal hormone therapy


Magnetic resonance imaging


Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs


Ovarian Cancer Cohort Consortium


Oral contraceptives


Polycystic ovary syndrome


Competing Interest

None to declare.

Funding: None.


  1. 1.
    Pérez-López FR, Chedraui P, Troyano-Luque JM. Peri- and post-menopausal incidental adnexal masses and the risk of sporadic ovarian malignancy: new insights and clinical management. Gynecol Endocrinol. 2010;26:631–43.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Moyer VA. U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Screening for ovarian cancer: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force reaffirmation recommendation statement. Ann Intern Med. 2012;157:900–4.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Ebell MH, Culp MB, Radke TJ. A systematic review of symptoms for the diagnosis of ovarian cancer. Am J Prev Med. 2016;50:384–94.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    FDA. Ovarian cancer screening tests: safety communication—FDA recommends against use. Accessed 21 Nov 2018.
  5. 5.
    Buys SS, Partridge E, Black A, Johnson CC, Lamerato L, Isaacs C, Reding DJ, Greenlee RT, Yokochi LA, Kessel B, Crawford ED, Church TR, Andriole GL, Weissfeld JL, Fouad MN, Chia D, O’Brien B, Ragard LR, Clapp JD, Rathmell JM, Riley TL, Hartge P, Pinsky PF, Zhu CS, Izmirlian G, Kramer BS, Miller AB, Xu JL, Prorok PC, Gohagan JK, Berg CD, PLCO Project Team. Effect of screening on ovarian cancer mortality: the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Screening Randomized Controlled Trial. JAMA. 2011;305:2295–303.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    US Preventive Services Task Force, Grossman DC, Curry SJ, Owens DK, Barry MJ, Davidson KW, Doubeni CA, Epling JW Jr, Kemper AR, Krist AH, Kurth AE, Landefeld CS, Mangione CM, Phipps MG, Silverstein M, Simon MA, Tseng CW. Screening for ovarian cancer: US Preventive Services Task Force recommendation statement. JAMA. 2018;319:588–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Gentry-Maharaj A, Glazer C, Burnell M, Ryan A, Berry H, Kalsi J, Woolas R, Skates SJ, Campbell S, Parmar M, Jacobs I, Menon U. Changing trends in reproductive/lifestyle factors in UK women: descriptive study within the UK Collaborative Trial of Ovarian Cancer Screening (UKCTOCS). BMJ Open. 2017;7:e011822.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Samimi G, Trabert B, Duggan MA, Robinson JL, Coa KI, Waibel E, Garcia E, Minasian LM, Sherman ME. Processing of fallopian tube, ovary, and endometrial surgical pathology specimens: a survey of U.S. laboratory practices. Gynecol Oncol. 2018;148:515–20.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Malvezzi M, Carioli G, Rodriguez T, Negri E, La Vecchia C. Global trends and predictions in ovarian cancer mortality. Ann Oncol. 2016;27:2017–25.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Matz M, Coleman MP, Carreira H, Salmerón D, Chirlaque MD, Allemani C; CONCORD Working Group. Worldwide comparison of ovarian cancer survival: histological group and stage at diagnosis (CONCORD-2). Gynecol Oncol. 2017;144:396–404. Erratum in: Gynecol Oncol. 2017;147:725.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Matz M, Coleman MP, Sant M, Chirlaque MD, Visser O, Gore M, Allemani C, The CONCORD Working Group. The histology of ovarian cancer: worldwide distribution and implications for international survival comparisons (CONCORD-2). Gynecol Oncol. 2017;144:405–13.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Prat J, FIGO Committee on Gynecologic Oncology. Staging classification for cancer of the ovary, fallopian tube, and peritoneum: abridged republication of guidelines from the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO). Obstet Gynecol. 2015;126:171–4.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Lim D, Oliva E. Precursors and pathogenesis of ovarian carcinoma. Pathology. 2013;45:229–42.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Pérez-López FR, Chedraui P. Surgical prevention of epithelial ovary cancer without oophorectomy: changing the future. Climacteric. 2016;19:417–8.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Karnezis AN, Cho KR, Gilks CB, Pearce CL, Huntsman DG. The disparate origins of ovarian cancers: pathogenesis and prevention strategies. Nat Rev Cancer. 2017;17:65–74.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Haggerty AF, Hagemann AR, Chu C, Siegelman ES, Rubin SC. Correlation of pelvic magnetic resonance imaging diagnosis with pathology for indeterminate adnexal masses. Int J Gynecol Cancer. 2014;24:1215–21.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Masch WR, Daye D, Lee SI. MR imaging for incidental adnexal mass characterization. Magn Reson Imaging Clin N Am. 2017;25:521–43.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Ma FH, Cai SQ, Qiang JW, Zhao SH, Zhang GF, Rao YM. MRI for differentiating primary fallopian tube carcinoma from epithelial ovarian cancer. J Magn Reson Imaging. 2015;42:42–7.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Veloso Gomes F, Dias JL, Lucas R, Cunha TM. Primary fallopian tube carcinoma: review of MR imaging findings. Insights Imaging. 2015;6:431–9.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Hampel H, Bennett RL, Buchanan A, Pearlman R, Wiesner GL, Guideline Development Group, American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics Professional Practice and Guidelines Committee and National Society of Genetic Counselors Practice Guidelines Committee. A practice guideline from the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics and the National Society of Genetic Counselors: referral indications for cancer predisposition assessment. Genet Med. 2015;17:70–87.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Pérez-López FR, Ceausu I, Depypere H, Kehoe S, Lambrinoudaki I, Mueck A, Senturk LM, Simoncini T, Stevenson JC, Stute P, Rees M. Interventions to reduce the risk of ovarian and fallopian tube cancer: a European Menopause and Andropause Society Position Statement. Maturitas. 2017;100:86–91.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Screening for ovarian cancer: recommendation statement. U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Am Fam Physician. 2005;71:759–62.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Tsilidis KK, Allen NE, Key TJ, Dossus L, Lukanova A, Bakken K, et al. Oral contraceptive use and reproductive factors and risk of ovarian cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. Br J Cancer. 2011;105:1436–42.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Jung KJ, Park C, Yun YD, Jee SH. Duration of ovarian hormone exposure and gynecological cancer risk in Korean women: the Korean Heart Study. Cancer Epidemiol. 2016;41:1–7.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Gong TT, Wu QJ, Vogtmann E, Lin B, Wang YL. Age at menarche and risk of ovarian cancer: a meta-analysis of epidemiological studies. Int J Cancer. 2013;132:2894–900.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Hankinson S, Danforth K. Ovarian. In: Schottenfeld D, Fraumeni JF, editors. Cancer epidemiology and prevention. New York: Oxford University Press; 2006. p. 1013–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Li K, Hüsing A, Fortner RT, Tjønneland A, Hansen L, Dossus L, et al. An epidemiologic risk prediction model for ovarian cancer in Europe: the EPIC study. Br J Cancer. 2015;112:1257–65.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Jung S, Allen N, Arslan AA, Baglietto L, Barricarte A, Brinton LA, Egleston BL, Falk RT, Fortner RT, Helzlsouer KJ, Gao Y, Idahl A, Kaaks R, Krogh V, Merritt MA, Lundin E, Onland-Moret NC, Rinaldi S, Schock H, Shu XO, Sluss PM, Staats PN, Sacerdote C, Travis RC, Tjønneland A, Trichopoulou A, Tworoger SS, Visvanathan K, Weiderpass E, Zeleniuch-Jacquotte A, Dorgan JF. Anti-Müllerian hormone and risk of ovarian cancer in nine cohorts. Int J Cancer. 2018;142:262–70.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Merritt MA, De Pari M, Vitonis AF, Titus LJ, Cramer DW, Terry KL. Reproductive characteristics in relation to ovarian cancer risk by histologic pathways. Hum Reprod. 2013;28:1406–17.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Wentzensen N, Poole EM, Trabert B, White E, Arslan AA, Patel AV, Setiawan VW, et al. Ovarian cancer risk factors by histologic subtype: an analysis from the ovarian cancer cohort consortium. J Clin Oncol. 2016;34:2888–98.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Stewart LM, Spilsbury K, Jordan S, Stewart C, Holman CDJ, Powell A, Reekie J, Cohen P. Risk of high-grade serous ovarian cancer associated with pelvic inflammatory disease, parity and breast cancer. Cancer Epidemiol. 2018;55:110–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Fuchs O, Sheiner E, Meirovitz M, Davidson E, Sergienko R, Kessous R. The association between a history of gestational diabetes mellitus and future risk for female malignancies. Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2017;295:731–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Kessous R, Davidson E, Meirovitz M, Sergienko R, Sheiner E. Prepregnancy obesity: a risk factor for future development of ovarian and breast cancer. Eur J Cancer Prev. 2017;26:151–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Moorman PG, Alberg AJ, Bandera EV, Barnholtz-Sloan J, Bondy M, Cote ML, Funkhouser E, Peters ES, Schwartz AG, Terry P, Crankshaw S, Wang F, Schildkraut JM. Reproductive factors and ovarian cancer risk in African-American women. Ann Epidemiol. 2016;26:654–62.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Sung HK, Ma SH, Choi JY, Hwang Y, Ahn C, Kim BG, Kim YM, Kim JW, Kang S, Kim J, Kim TJ, Yoo KY, Kang D, Park S. The effect of breastfeeding duration and parity on the risk of epithelial ovarian cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Prev Med Public Health. 2016;49:349–66.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Iversen L, Sivasubramaniam S, Lee AJ, Fielding S, Hannaford PC. Lifetime cancer risk and combined oral contraceptives: the Royal College of General Practitioners’ Oral Contraception Study. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2017;216:580.e1–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Michels KA, Brinton LA, Pfeiffer RM, Trabert B. Oral contraceptive use and risks of cancer in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study. Am J Epidemiol. 2018;187:1630–41.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Havrilesky LJ, Moorman PG, Lowery WJ, Gierisch JM, Coeytaux RR, Urrutia RP, Dinan M, McBroom AJ, Hasselblad V, Sanders GD, Myers ER. Oral contraceptive pills as primary prevention for ovarian cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Obstet Gynecol. 2013;122:139–47.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Collaborative Group on Epidemiological Studies of Ovarian Cancer, Beral V, Doll R, Hermon C, Peto R, Reeves G. Ovarian cancer and oral contraceptives: collaborative reanalysis of data from 45 epidemiological studies including 23,257 women with ovarian cancer and 87,303 controls. Lancet. 2008;371:303–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Faber MT, Jensen A, Frederiksen K, Glud E, Høgdall E, Høgdall C, Blaakaer J, Kjaer SK. Oral contraceptive use and impact of cumulative intake of estrogen and progestin on risk of ovarian cancer. Cancer Causes Control. 2013;24:2197–206.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    McGuire V, Hartge P, Liao LM, Sinha R, Bernstein L, Canchola AJ, Anderson GL, Stefanick ML, Whittemore AS. Parity and oral contraceptive use in relation to ovarian cancer risk in older women. Cancer Epidemiol Biomark Prev. 2016;25:1059–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Cook LS, Pestak CR, Leung AC, Steed H, Nation J, Swenerton K, Gallagher R, Magliocco A, Köbel M, Brooks-Wilson A, Le N. Combined oral contraceptive use before the first birth and epithelial ovarian cancer risk. Br J Cancer. 2017;116:265–9.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Moorman PG, Havrilesky LJ, Gierisch JM, Coeytaux RR, Lowery WJ, Peragallo Urrutia R, Dinan M, McBroom AJ, Hasselblad V, Sanders GD, Myers ER. Oral contraceptives and risk of ovarian cancer and breast cancer among high-risk women: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Clin Oncol. 2013;31:4188–98.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Soini T, Hurskainen R, Grénman S, Mäenpää J, Paavonen J, Pukkala E. Impact of levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system use on the cancer risk of the ovary and fallopian tube. Acta Oncol. 2016;55:1281–4.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Yang HP, Anderson WF, Rosenberg PS, et al. Ovarian cancer incidence trends in relation to changing patterns of menopausal hormone therapy use in the United States. J Clin Oncol. 2013;31:2146–51.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Collaborative Group On Epidemiological Studies Of Ovarian Cancer, Beral V, Gaitskell K, Hermon C, Moser K, Reeves G, Peto R. Menopausal hormone use and ovarian cancer risk: individual participant meta-analysis of 52 epidemiological studies. Lancet. 2015;385:1835–42.PubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Pérez-López FR, Rees M. Menopausal hormone therapy and ovarian cancer: putting risk into perspective. Maturitas. 2015;81:3–4.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Holm M, Olsen A, Kyrø C, Overvad K, Kroman N, Tjønneland A. The influence of menopausal hormone therapy and potential lifestyle interactions in female cancer development—a population-based prospective study. Horm Cancer. 2018;9:254–64.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Koskela-Niska V, Pukkala E, Lyytinen H, Ylikorkala O, Dyba T. Effect of various forms of postmenopausal hormone therapy on the risk of ovarian cancer—a population-based case control study from Finland. Int J Cancer. 2013;133:1680–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Koskela-Niska V, Pukkala E, Lyytinen H, Ylikorkala O, Dyba T. Postmenopausal hormone therapy-also use of estradiol plus levonorgestrel-intrauterine system is associated with an increased risk of primary fallopian tube carcinoma. Int J Cancer. 2015;137:1947–52.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Jensen A, Sharif H, Frederiksen K, Kjaer SK. Use of fertility drugs and risk of ovarian cancer: Danish Population Based Cohort Study. BMJ. 2009;338:b249.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Williams CL, Jones ME, Swerdlow AJ, Botting BJ, Davies MC, Jacobs I, Bunch KJ, Murphy MFG, Sutcliffe AG. Risks of ovarian, breast, and corpus uteri cancer in women treated with assisted reproductive technology in Great Britain, 1991-2010: data linkage study including 2.2 million person years of observation. BMJ. 2018;362:k2644.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
  54. 54.
    Rice MS, Murphy MA, Tworoger SS. Tubal ligation, hysterectomy and ovarian cancer: a meta-analysis. J Ovarian Res. 2012;5:13.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Rice MS, Hankinson SE, Tworoger SS. Tubal ligation, hysterectomy, unilateral oophorectomy, and risk of ovarian cancer in the Nurses’ Health Studies. Fertil Steril. 2014;102:192–8.e3.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Sieh W, Salvador S, McGuire V, Weber RP, Terry KL, Rossing MA, Risch H, et al. Tubal ligation and risk of ovarian cancer subtypes: a pooled analysis of case-control studies. Int J Epidemiol. 2013;42:579–89.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Madsen C, Baandrup L, Dehlendorff C, Kjaer SK. Tubal ligation and salpingectomy and the risk of epithelial ovarian cancer and borderline ovarian tumors: a nationwide case-control study. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2015;94:86–94.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Gaitskell K, Green J, Pirie K, Reeves G, Beral V, on behalf of the Million Women Study Collaborators. Tubal ligation and ovarian cancer risk in a large cohort: substantial variation by histological type. Int J Cancer. 2016;138:1076–84.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Falconer H, Yin L, Grönberg H, Altman D. Ovarian cancer risk after salpingectomy: a nationwide population-based study. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2015;107:dju410.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Yoon SH, Kim SN, Shim SH, Kang SB, Lee SJ. Bilateral salpingectomy can reduce the risk of ovarian cancer in the general population: a meta-analysis. Eur J Cancer. 2016;55:38–46.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Anderson M. Prophylactic salpingectomy with delayed oophorectomy, risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy, and ovarian cancer screening among BRCA mutation carriers: a proof-of-concept study (M.D. Anderson study #2013-0340). Accessed 15 Sep 2018.
  62. 62.
    Chene G, Meysonnier C, Buenerd A, Moret S, Nadaud B, Beaufils E, Le Bail-Carval K, Chabert P, Mellier G, Lamblin G. Feasibility of opportunistic salpingectomy at the time of vaginal hysterectomy for benign pathology and evaluation of occult tubal lesions prevalence: preliminary study. J Gynecol Obstet Biol Reprod (Paris). 2016;45:549–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Antosh DD, High R, Brown HW, Oliphant SS, Abed H, Philip N, Grimes CL. Feasibility of prophylactic salpingectomy during vaginal hysterectomy. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2017;217:605.e1–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Giraudet G, Rubod C, Collinet P, Cosson M. Salpingectomy during vaginal hysterectomy: a surgical technique to make it easier. Obstet Gynecol. 2018;132:271–3.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Subramaniam A, Blanchard CT, Erickson BK, Szychowski J, Leath CA, Biggio JR, Huh WK. Feasibility of complete salpingectomy compared with standard postpartum tubal ligation at cesarean delivery: a randomized controlled trial. Obstet Gynecol. 2018;132:20–7.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Hanley GE, Kwon JS, Finlayson SJ, Huntsman DG, Miller D, McAlpine JN. Extending the safety evidence for opportunistic salpingectomy in prevention of ovarian cancer: a cohort study from British Columbia, Canada. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2018;219:172.e1–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Ayres C, Ratnayake G, McNally O, Quinn M. Challenging salpingectomy as a risk-reducing measure for ovarian cancer: histopathological analysis of the tubo-ovarian Interface in women undergoing risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy. Int J Gynecol Cancer. 2017;27:703–7.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Yang TO, Reeves GK, Green J, Beral V, Cairns BJ, Million Women Study Collaborators; Million Women Study Collaborators. Birth weight and adult cancer incidence: large prospective study and meta-analysis. Ann Oncol. 2014;25:1836–43.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Baer HJ, Hankinson SE, Tworoger SS. Body size in early life and risk of epithelial ovarian cancer: results from the Nurses’ health studies. Br J Cancer. 2008;99:1916–22.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Lahmann PH, Cust AE, Friedenreich CM, Schulz M, Lukanova A, Kaaks R, et al. Anthropometric measures and epithelial ovarian cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. Int J Cancer. 2010;126:2404–15.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Kotsopoulos J, Baer HJ, Tworoger SS. Anthropometric measures and risk of epithelial ovarian cancer: results from the Nurses’ Health Study. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2010;18:1625–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Zhou Y, Chlebowski R, LaMonte MJ, Bea JW, Qi L, Wallace R, Lavasani S, Walsh BW, Anderson G, Vitolins M, Sarto G, Irwin ML. Body mass index, physical activity, and mortality in women diagnosed with ovarian cancer: results from the Women’s Health Initiative. Gynecol Oncol. 2014;133:4–10.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Bandera EV, Qin B, Moorman PG, Alberg AJ, Barnholtz-Sloan JS, Bondy M, Cote ML, Funkhouser E, Peters ES, Schwartz AG, Terry P, Schildkraut JM. Obesity, weight gain, and ovarian cancer risk in African American women. Int J Cancer. 2016;139:593–600.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Collaborative Group on Epidemiological Studies of Ovarian Cancer. Ovarian cancer and body size: individual participant meta-analysis including 25,157 women with ovarian cancer from 47 epidemiological studies. PLoS Med. 2012;9:e1001200.PubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Aune D, Navarro Rosenblatt DA, Chan DS, Abar L, Vingeliene S, Vieira AR, Greenwood DC, Norat T. Anthropometric factors and ovarian cancer risk: a systematic review and nonlinear dose-response meta-analysis of prospective studies. Int J Cancer. 2015;136:1888–98.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Olsen CM, Nagle CM, Whiteman DC, Ness R, Pearce CL, Pike MC, et al. Obesity and risk of ovarian cancer subtypes: evidence from the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium. Endocr Relat Cancer. 2013;20:251–62.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Keum N, Greenwood DC, Lee DH, Kim R, Aune D, Ju W, Hu FB, Giovannucci EL. Adult weight gain and adiposity-related cancers: a dose-response meta-analysis of prospective observational studies. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2015;107:djv088.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Schouten LJ, Rivera C, Hunter DJ, Spiegelman D, Adami HO, Arslan A, et al. Height, body mass index, and ovarian cancer: a pooled analysis of 12 cohort studies. Cancer Epidemiol Biomark Prev. 2008;17:902–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Gianuzzi X, Palma-Ardiles G, Hernández-Fernández W, Pasupuleti V, Hernandez AV, Pérez-López FR. Insulin growth factor (IGF) 1, IGF-binding proteins and ovarian cancer risk: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Maturitas. 2016;94:22–9.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Wang C, Liang Z, Liu X, Zhang Q, Li S. The Association between endometriosis, tubal ligation, hysterectomy and epithelial ovarian cancer: meta-analyses. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2016;13:E1138.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Casaburi I, Puoci F, Chimento A, Sirianni R, Ruggiero C, Avena P, Pezzi V. Potential of olive oil phenols as chemopreventive and therapeutic agents against cancer: a review of in vitro studies. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2013;57:71–83.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Sáez-López C, Soriguer F, Hernández C, Rojo-Martínez G, Rubio-Martín E, Simó R, Selva DM. Oleic acid increases hepatic sex hormone binding globulin production in men. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2014;58:760–7.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Schwingshackl L, Hoffmann G. Adherence to Mediterranean diet and risk of cancer: an updated systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies. Cancer Med. 2015;4:1933–47.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Peres LC, Bandera EV, Qin B, Guertin KA, Shivappa N, Hebert JR, Abbott SE, Alberg AJ, Barnholtz-Sloan J, Bondy M, et al. Dietary inflammatory index and risk of epithelial ovarian cancer in African American women. Int J Cancer. 2017;140:535–43.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Prentice RL, Thomson CA, Caan B, et al. Low-fat dietary pattern and cancer incidence in the Women’s Health Initiative Dietary Modification Randomized Controlled Trial. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2007;99:1534–43.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Zeng ST, Guo L, Liu SK, Wang DH, Xi J, Huang P, Liu DT, Gao JF, Feng J, Zhang L. Egg consumption is associated with increased risk of ovarian cancer: evidence from a meta-analysis of observational studies. Clin Nutr. 2015;34:635–41.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Ong JS, Cuellar-Partida G, Lu Y, Australian Ovarian Cancer Study, Fasching PA, Hein A, Burghaus S, Beckmann MW, Lambrechts D, et al. Association of vitamin D levels and risk of ovarian cancer: a Mendelian randomization study. Int J Epidemiol. 2016;45:1619–30.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Obón-Santacana M, Peeters PH, Freisling H, Dossus L, Clavel-Chapelon F, Baglietto L, et al. Dietary intake of acrylamide and epithelial ovarian cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) Cohort. Cancer Epidemiol Biomark Prev. 2015;24:291–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Kotemori A, Ishihara J, Zha L, Liu R, Sawada N, Iwasaki M, Sobue T, Tsugane S, JPHC Study Group. Dietary acrylamide intake and the risk of endometrial or ovarian cancers among Japanese women. Cancer Sci. 2018;109:3316–25.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Hildebrand JS, Gapstur SM, Gaudet MM, Campbell PT, Patel AV. Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and leisure-time sitting in relation to ovarian cancer risk in a large prospective US cohort. Cancer Causes Control. 2015;26:1691–7.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Cannioto RA, Moysich KB. Epithelial ovarian cancer and recreational physical activity: a review of the epidemiological literature and implications for exercise prescription. Gynecol Oncol. 2015;137:559–73.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Cannioto R, LaMonte MJ, Risch HA, Hong CC, Sucheston-Campbell LE, Eng KH, et al. Chronic recreational physical inactivity and epithelial ovarian cancer risk: evidence from the ovarian cancer association consortium. Cancer Epidemiol Biomark Prev. 2016;25:1114–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Huang T, Eliassen AH, Hankinson SE, Okereke OI, Kubzansky LD, Wang M, Poole EM, Chavarro JE, Tworoger SS. A prospective study of leisure-time physical activity and risk of incident epithelial ovarian cancer: impact by menopausal status. Int J Cancer. 2016;138:843–52.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Terry KL, Karageorgi S, Shvetsov YB, Merritt MA, Lurie G, Thompson PJ, Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium, et al. Genital powder use and risk of ovarian cancer: a pooled analysis of 8,525 cases and 9,859 controls. Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2013;6:811–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Schildkraut JM, Abbott SE, Alberg AJ, Bandera EV, Barnholtz-Sloan JS, Bondy ML, Cote ML, Funkhouser E, Peres LC, Peters ES, Schwartz AG, Terry P, Crankshaw S, Camacho F, Wang F, Moorman PG. Association between body powder use and ovarian cancer: the African American Cancer Epidemiology Study (AACES). Cancer Epidemiol Biomark Prev. 2016;25:1411–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Penninkilampi R, Eslick GD. Perineal talc use and ovarian cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Epidemiology. 2018;29:41–9.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Gonzalez NL, O’Brien KM, D’Aloisio AA, Sandler DP, Weinberg CR. Douching, talc use, and risk of ovarian cancer. Epidemiology. 2016;27:797–802.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Rota M, Pasquali E, Scotti L, Pelucchi C, Tramacere I, Islami F, Negri E, Boffetta P, Bellocco R, Corrao G, La Vecchia C, Bagnardi V. Alcohol drinking and epithelial ovarian cancer risk. A systematic review and meta-analysis. Gynecol Oncol. 2012;125:758–63.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Kelemen LE, Bandera EV, Terry KL, Rossing MA, Brinton LA, Doherty JA, Australian Ovarian Cancer Study Group and Australian Cancer Study (Ovarian Cancer); Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium. Recent alcohol consumption and risk of incident ovarian carcinoma: a pooled analysis of 5,342 cases and 10,358 controls from the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium. BMC Cancer. 2013;13:28.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Yan-Hong H, Jing L, Hong L, Shan-Shan H, Yan L, Ju L. Association between alcohol consumption and the risk of ovarian cancer: a meta-analysis of prospective observational studies. BMC Public Health. 2015;15:223.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Cook LS, Leung AC, Swenerton K, Gallagher RP, Magliocco A, Steed H, Koebel M, Nation J, Eshragh S, Brooks-Wilson A, Le ND. Adult lifetime alcohol consumption and invasive epithelial ovarian cancer risk in a population-based case-control study. Gynecol Oncol. 2016;140:277–84.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Braem MG, Onland-Moret NC, Schouten LJ, Tjønneland A, Hansen L, Dahm CC, et al. Coffee and tea consumption and the risk of ovarian cancer: a prospective cohort study and updated meta-analysis. Am J Clin Nutr. 2012;95:1172–81.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Cassidy A, Huang T, Rice MS, Rimm EB, Tworoger SS. Intake of dietary flavonoids and risk of epithelial ovarian cancer. Am J Clin Nutr. 2014;100:1344–51.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Gosvig CF, Kjaer SK, Blaakær J, Høgdall E, Høgdall C, Jensen A. Coffee, tea, and caffeine consumption and risk of epithelial ovarian cancer and borderline ovarian tumors: results from a Danish case-control study. Acta Oncol. 2015;54:1144–51.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Arthur R, Kirsh VA, Rohan TE. Associations of coffee, tea and caffeine intake with risk of breast, endometrial and ovarian cancer among Canadian women. Cancer Epidemiol. 2018;56:75–82.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Marchbanks PA, Wilson H, Bastos E, et al. Cigarette smoking and epithelial ovarian cancer by histologic type. Obstet Gynecol. 2000;95:255–60.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Gram IT, Braaten T, Adami HO, Lund E, Weiderpass E. Cigarette smoking and risk of borderline and invasive epithelial ovarian cancer. Int J Cancer. 2008;122:647–52.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Licaj I, Jacobsen BK, Selmer RM, Maskarinec G, Weiderpass E, Gram IT. Smoking and risk of ovarian cancer by histological subtypes: an analysis among 300 000 Norwegian women. Br J Cancer. 2017;116:270–6.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Kelemen LE, Abbott S, Qin B, Peres LC, Moorman PG, Wallace K, Bandera EV, Barnholtz-Sloan JS, Bondy M, Cartmell K, Cote ML, Funkhouser E, Paddock LE, Peters ES, Schwartz AG, Terry P, Alberg AJ, Schildkraut JM. Cigarette smoking and the association with serous ovarian cancer in African American women: African American Cancer Epidemiology Study(AACES). Cancer Causes Control. 2017;28:699–708.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Trabert B, Ness RB, Lo-Ciganic W-H, et al. Aspirin, nonaspirin nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, and acetaminophen use and risk of invasive epithelial ovarian cancer: a pooled analysis in the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2014;106:djt431.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Trabert B, Poole EM, White E, Visvanathan K, Adami HO, Anderson GL, Brasky TM, Brinton LA, Fortner RT, Gaudet M, Hartge P, Hoffman-Bolton J, Jones M, Lacey JV Jr, Larsson SC, Mackenzie GG, Schouten LJ, Sandler DP, O’Brien K, Patel AV, Peters U, Prizment A, Robien K, Setiawan WV, Swerdlow A, van den Brandt PA, Weiderpass E, Wilkens LR, Wolk A, Wentzensen N, Tworoger SS, Ovarian Cancer Cohort Consortium (OC3). Analgesic use and ovarian cancer risk: an analysis in the Ovarian Cancer Cohort Consortium. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2019;111:137–45.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Baandrup L, Kjaer SK, Olsen JH, Dehlendorff C, Friis S. Low-dose aspirin use and the risk of ovarian cancer in Denmark. Ann Oncol. 2015;26:787–92.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Peres LC, Camacho F, Abbott SE, Alberg AJ, Bandera EV, Barnholtz-Sloan J, Bondy M, Cote ML, Crankshaw S, Funkhouser E, Moorman PG, Peters ES, Schwartz AG, Terry P, Wang F, Schildkraut JM. Analgesic medication use and risk of epithelial ovarian cancer in African American women. Br J Cancer. 2016;114:819–25.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Peres LC, Moorman PG, Alberg AJ, Bandera EV, Barnholtz-Sloan J, Bondy M, Cote ML, Funkhouser E, Peters ES, Schwartz AG, Terry PD, Abbott SE, Camacho F, Wang F, Schildkraut JM. Lifetime number of ovulatory cycles and epithelial ovarian cancer risk in African American women. Cancer Causes Control. 2017;28:405–14.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Merritt MA, Rice MS, Barnard ME, Hankinson SE, Matulonis UA, Poole EM, Tworoger SS. Pre-diagnosis and post-diagnosis use of common analgesics and ovarian cancer prognosis (NHS/NHSII): a cohort study. Lancet Oncol. 2018;19:1107–16.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Le ND, Leung A, Brooks-Wilson A, Gallagher RP, Swenerton KD, Demers PA, Cook LS. Occupational exposure and ovarian cancer risk. Cancer Causes Control. 2014;25:829–41.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Tran B, Jordan SJ, Lucas R, Webb PM, Neale R, Australian Ovarian Cancer Study Group. Association between ambient ultraviolet radiation and risk of epithelial ovarian cancer. Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2012;5:1330–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Riska A, Martinsen JI, Kjaerheim K, Lynge E, Sparen P, Tryggvadottir L, Weiderpass E, Pukkala E. Occupation and risk of primary fallopian tube carcinoma in Nordic countries. Int J Cancer. 2012;131:186–92.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Kobayashi H, Sumimoto K, Moniwa N, Imai M, Takakura K, Kuromaki T, Morioka E, Arisawa K, Terao T. Risk of developing ovarian cancer among women with ovarian endometrioma: a cohort study in Shizuoka. Jpn Int J Gynecol Cancer. 2007;17:37–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Pearce CL, Templeman C, Rossing MA, Lee A, Near AM, Webb PM, Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium, et al. Association between endometriosis and risk of histological subtypes of ovarian cancer: a pooled analysis of case-control studies. Lancet Oncol. 2012;13:385–94.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Lu Y, Cuellar-Partida G, Painter JN, Nyholt DR, Australian Ovarian Cancer Study; International Endogene Consortium (IEC), Morris AP, Fasching PA, Hein A, Burghaus S, Beckmann MW, Lambrechts D, Van Nieuwenhuysen E, Vergote I, Vanderstichele A, Doherty JA, Rossing MA, Wicklund KG, Chang-Claude J, Eilber U, et al. Shared genetics underlying epidemiological association between endometriosis and ovarian cancer. Hum Mol Genet. 2015;24:5955–64.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    He J, Chang W, Feng C, Cui M, Xu T. Endometriosis malignant transformation: epigenetics as a probable mechanism in ovarian tumorigenesis. Int J Genomics. 2018;2018:1465348.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Parazzini F, La Vecchia C, Negri E, Moroni S, dal Pino D, Fedele L. Pelvic inflammatory disease and risk of ovarian cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomark Prev. 1996;5:667–9.Google Scholar
  124. 124.
    Rasmussen CB, Jensen A, Albieri V, Andersen KK, Kjaer SK. Is pelvic inflammatory disease a risk factor for ovarian cancer? Cancer Epidemiol Biomark Prev. 2017;26:104–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Rasmussen CB, Kjaer SK, Albieri V, Bandera EV, Doherty JA, Høgdall E, et al. Pelvic inflammatory disease and the risk of ovarian cancer and borderline ovarian tumors: a pooled analysis of 13 case-control studies. Am J Epidemiol. 2017;185:8–20.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Harris HR, Titus LJ, Cramer DW, Terry KL. Long and irregular menstrual cycles, polycystic ovary syndrome, and ovarian cancer risk in a population-based case-control study. Int J Cancer. 2017;140:285–91.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Harris HR, Babic A, Webb PM, Nagle CM, Jordan SJ, Risch HA, Rossing MA, Doherty JA, Goodman MT, Modugno F, Ness RB, Moysich KB, Kjær SK, Høgdall E, Jensen A, Schildkraut JM, Berchuck A, Cramer DW, Bandera EV, Wentzensen N, Kotsopoulos J, Narod SA, Phelan CM, McLaughlin JR, Anton-Culver H, Ziogas A, Pearce CL, Wu AH, Terry KL, Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium; Australian Ovarian Cancer Study Group. Polycystic ovary syndrome, oligomenorrhea, and risk of ovarian cancer histotypes: evidence from the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium. Cancer Epidemiol Biomark Prev. 2018;27:174–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Barry JA, Azizia MM, Hardiman PJ. Risk of endometrial, ovarian and breast cancer in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Hum Reprod Update. 2014;20:748–58.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Chen RF, Li J, Zhu TT, Yu HL, Lu X. Fertility-sparing surgery for young patients with borderline ovarian tumors (BOTs): single institution experience. J Ovarian Res. 2016;9:16.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Vancraeynest E, Moerman P, Leunen K, Amant F, Neven P, Vergote I. Fertility preservation is safe for serous borderline ovarian tumors. Int J Gynecol Cancer. 2016;26:1399–406.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Trillsch F, Mahner S, Woelber L, et al. Age-dependent differences in borderline ovarian tumours (BOT) regarding clinical characteristics and outcome: results from a subanalysis of the Arbeitsgemeinschaft Gynaekologische Onkologie (AGO) ROBOT Study. Ann Oncol. 2014;25:1320–7.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Uzan C, Muller E, Kane A, Rey A, Gouy S, Bendiffallah S, Duvillard P, Fauvet R, Darai E, Morice P. Prognostic factors for recurrence after conservative treatment in a series of 119 patients with stage I serous borderline tumors of the ovary. Ann Oncol. 2014;25:166–71.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Liao Z, Rodrigues MC, Poynter JN, Amatruda JF, Rodriguez-Galindo C, Frazier AL. Risk of second malignant neoplasms in women and girls with germ cell tumors. Ann Oncol. 2017;28:329–32.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Obstetrics and GynecologyUniversity of Zaragoza Facultad de MedicinaZaragozaSpain

Personalised recommendations