Advertisement

Premature Ovarian Insufficiency

  • Agnieszka Podfigurna
  • Monika Grymowicz
  • Anna Szeliga
  • Ewa Rudnicka
  • Marzena Maciejewska-Jeske
  • Roman Smolarczyk
  • Blazej Meczekalski
Chapter

Abstract

Premature ovarian insufficiency (POI) is defined as the loss of ovarian function before the age of 40 years. Secondary amenorrhea or prolonged oligomenorrhea and primary amenorrhea may be the first symptoms and are the most common complains of POI patients. Hypergonadotropic hypogonadism is the most characteristic abnormality in hormonal profile of those patients. The prevalence of POI is about 1% and is variable depending on the age: 1% of women younger than 40 years, 0.1% under 30 years, and 0.01% under the age of 20 years. Both spontaneous and iatrogenic causes may induce POI. Spontaneous causes of POI include genetic abnormalities, autoimmune disorders, infections, enzyme deficiency, metabolic diseases, or very often idiopathic causes. Induced or iatrogenic POI is often a result of oncological treatment: radiotherapy, chemotherapy, and surgery. It is necessary to highlight that POI along with associated hypoestrogenism contributes to many complications in women’s health. POI causes decrease in bone mineral density, impairment of metabolic health, and cardiovascular system functioning. Genitourinary tract, fertility, as well as emotional health and sexual life are also at influence of premature hypoestrogenism associated with POI. The mainstay of treatment of POI is hormone replacement therapy (HRT) until at least the age of natural menopause. HRT should be long term in POI patients; therefore issues of compliance as well as risk-benefit ratio are very important to maximize longer-term health.

Keywords

Premature ovarian insufficiency Hypergonadotropic hypogonadism Amenorrhea Premature menopause Hormonal replacement therapy 

References

  1. 1.
    Albright F, Smith PH, Fraser R. A syndrome characterized by primary ovarian insufficiency and decreased stature: report of 11 cases with a digression on hormonal control of axillary and pubic hair. Am J Med Sci. 1942;204:625–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    de Moraes-Ruehsen M, Jones GS. Premature ovarian failure. Fertil Steril. 1967;18(4):440–61.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    European Society for Human Reproduction and Embryology (ESHRE) Guideline Group on POI, Webber L, Davies M, et al. ESHRE Guideline: management of women with premature ovarian insufficiency. Hum Reprod. 2016;31(5):926–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    POI Guideline Development Group. Guideline of the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology: management of women with premature ovarian insufficiency, December 2015.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Nelson LM. Clinical practice. Primary ovarian insufficiency. N Engl J Med. 2009;360(6):606–14.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Chang SH, Kim C-S, Lee K-S, et al. Premenopausal factors influencing premature ovarian failure and early menopause. Maturitas. 2007;58(1):19–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Howell S, Shalet S. Gonadal damage from chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Endocrinol Metab Clin N Am. 1998;27(4):927–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Koyama H, Wada T, Nishizawa Y, Iwanaga T, Aoki Y. Cyclophosphamide-induced ovarian failure and its therapeutic significance in patients with breast cancer. Cancer. 1977;39(4):1403–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Kalantari H, Madani T, Zari Moradi S, et al. Cytogenetic analysis of 179 Iranian women with premature ovarian failure. Gynecol Endocrinol. 2013;29(6):588–91.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Jiao X, Qin C, Li J, et al. Cytogenetic analysis of 531 Chinese women with premature ovarian failure. Hum Reprod. 2012;27(7):2201–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Hook EB, Warburton D. Turner syndrome revisited: review of new data supports the hypothesis that all viable 45,X cases are cryptic mosaics with a rescue cell line, implying an origin by mitotic loss. Hum Genet. 2014;133(4):417–24.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Zinn AR, Page DC, Fisher EM. Turner syndrome: the case of the missing sex chromosome. Trends Genet. 1993;9(3):90–3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Simpson JL, Rajkovic A. Ovarian differentiation and gonadal failure. Am J Med Genet. 1999;89(4):186–200.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Gravholt CH, Fedder J, Naeraa RW, Müller J. Occurrence of gonadoblastoma in females with Turner syndrome and Y chromosome material: a population study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2000;85(9):3199–202.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Villanueva AL, Rebar RW. Triple-X syndrome and premature ovarian failure. Obstet Gynecol. 1983;62(3 Suppl):70s–3s.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Tungphaisal S, Jinorose U. True 47,XXX in a patient with premature ovarian failure: the first reported case in Thailand. J Med Assoc Thail. 1992;75(11):661–5.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Conway GS, Payne NN, Webb J, Murray A, Jacobs PA. Fragile X premutation screening in women with premature ovarian failure. Hum Reprod. 1998;13(5):1184–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Murray A, Schoemaker MJ, Bennett CE, et al. Population-based estimates of the prevalence of FMR1 expansion mutations in women with early menopause and primary ovarian insufficiency. Genet Med. 2014;16(1):19–24.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Wittenberger MD, Hagerman RJ, Sherman SL, et al. The FMR1 premutation and reproduction. Fertil Steril. 2007;87(3):456–65.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Hundscheid RD, Sistermans EA, Thomas CM, et al. Imprinting effect in premature ovarian failure confined to paternally inherited fragile X permutations. Am J Hum Genet. 2000;66(2):413–8.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Hagerman PJ, Hagerman RJ. The fragile-X premutation: a maturing perspective. Am J Hum Genet. 2004;74(5):805–16.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Qin Y, Vujovic S, Li G, et al. Ethnic specificity of variants of the ESR1, HK3, BRSK1 genes and the 8q22.3 locus: no association with premature ovarian failure (POF) in Serbian women. Maturitas. 2014;77(1):64–7.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Simpson JL. Genetic and phenotypic heterogeneity in ovarian failure: overview of selected candidate genes. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2008;1135(1):146–54.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Vujovic S. Aetiology of premature ovarian failure. Menopause Int. 2009;15(2):72–5.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Chapman C, Cree L, Shelling AN. The genetics of premature ovarian failure: current perspectives. Int J Women’s Health. 2015;7:799–810.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Gubbels CS, Land JA, Evers JLH, et al. Primary ovarian insufficiency in classic galactosemia: role of FSH dysfunction and timing of the lesion. J Inherit Metab Dis. 2013;36(1):29–34.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    La Marca A, Brozzetti A, Sighinolfi G, Marzotti S, Volpe A, Falorni A. Primary ovarian insufficiency: autoimmune causes. Curr Opin Obstet Gynecol. 2010;22(4):1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Dittmar M, Kahaly GJ. Polyglandular autoimmune syndromes: immunogenetics and long-term follow-up. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2003;88(7):2983–92.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Maclaren N, Chen QY, Kukreja A, Marker J, Zhang CH, Sun ZS. Autoimmune hypogonadism as part of an autoimmune polyglandular syndrome. J Soc Gynecol Investig. 2001;8(1 Suppl Proceedings):S52–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Silva CA, Yamakami LYS, Aikawa NE, Araujo DB, Carvalho JF, Bonfá E. Autoimmune primary ovarian insufficiency. Autoimmun Rev. 2014;13(4-5):427–30.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Hoek A, Schoemaker J, Drexhage HA. Premature ovarian failure and ovarian autoimmunity. Endocr Rev. 1997;18(1):107–34.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Kim TJ, Anasti JN, Flack MR, Kimzey LM, Defensor RA, Nelson LM. Routine endocrine screening for patients with karyotypically normal spontaneous premature ovarian failure. Obstet Gynecol. 1997;89(5 Pt 1):777–9.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Larsen EC, Müller J, Schmiegelow K, Rechnitzer C, Andersen AN. Reduced ovarian function in long-term survivors of radiation- and chemotherapy-treated childhood cancer. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2003;88(11):5307–14.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Meirow D. Ovarian injury and modern options to preserve fertility in female cancer patients treated with high dose radio-chemotherapy for hemato-oncological neoplasias and other cancers. Leuk Lymphoma. 1999;33(1-2):65–76.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Beerendonk CCM, Braat DDM. Present and future options for the preservation of fertility in female adolescents with cancer. Endocr Dev. 2005;8:166–75.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Gracia CR, Sammel MD, Freeman E, et al. Impact of cancer therapies on ovarian reserve. Fertil Steril. 2012;97(1):134–40.e1.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Rosendahl M, Andersen CY, Ernst E, et al. Ovarian function after removal of an entire ovary for cryopreservation of pieces of cortex prior to gonadotoxic treatment: a follow-up study. Hum Reprod. 2008;23(11):2475–83.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Schmidt KT, Nyboe Andersen A, Greve T, Ernst E, Loft A, Yding AC. Fertility in cancer patients after cryopreservation of one ovary. Reprod Biomed Online. 2013;26(3):272–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Somigliana E, Berlanda N, Benaglia L, Viganò P, Vercellini P, Fedele L. Surgical excision of endometriomas and ovarian reserve: a systematic review on serum antimüllerian hormone level modifications. Fertil Steril. 2012;98(6):1531–8.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Raffi F, Metwally M, Amer S. The impact of excision of ovarian endometrioma on ovarian reserve: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2012;97(9):3146–54.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Goswami D, Conway GS. Premature ovarian failure. Hum Reprod Update. 2005;11(4):391–410.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Kokcu A. Premature ovarian failure from current perspective. Gynecol Endocrinol. 2010;26(8):555–62.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Di Prospero F, Luzi S, Iacopini Z. Cigarette smoking damages women’s reproductive life. Reprod Biomed Online. 2004;8(2):246–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Cramer DW, Harlow BL, Xu H, Fraer C, Barbieri R. Cross-sectional and case-controlled analyses of the association between smoking and early menopause. Maturitas. 1995;22(2):79–87.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    NELSON L, COVINGTON S, REBAR R. An update: spontaneous premature ovarian failure is not an early menopause. Fertil Steril. 2005;83(5):1327–32.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Coulam CB, Adamson SC, Annegers JF. Incidence of premature ovarian failure. Obstet Gynecol. 1986;67(4):604–6.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Luborsky JL, Meyer P, Sowers MF, Gold EB, Santoro N. Premature menopause in a multi-ethnic population study of the menopause transition. Hum Reprod. 2003;18(1):199–206.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Timmreck LS, Reindollar RH. Contemporary issues in primary amenorrhea. Obstet Gynecol Clin N Am. 2003;30(2):287–302.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Anasti JN. Premature ovarian failure: an update. Fertil Steril. 1998;70(1):1–15.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Maclaran K, Panay N. Current concepts in premature ovarian insufficiency. Women’s Health (Lond Engl). 2015;11(2):169–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Maclaran K, Panay N. Presentation and management of POF: findings from the West London POF database. Present 15th World Congr Gynecol Endocrinol Florence, Italy, 7–10 March 2012. 2012; pp. 7–10.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Bachelot A, Rouxel A, Massin N, et al. Phenotyping and genetic studies of 357 consecutive patients presenting with premature ovarian failure. Eur J Endocrinol. 2009;161(1):179–87.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Rocha VBC, Guerra-Júnior G, Marques-de-Faria AP, de Mello MP, Maciel-Guerra AT. Complete gonadal dysgenesis in clinical practice: the 46,XY karyotype accounts for more than one third of cases. Fertil Steril. 2011;96(6):1431–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Chitayat D, Wyatt PR, Wilson RD, et al. Fragile X testing in obstetrics and gynaecology in Canada. J Obstet Gynaecol Can. 2008;30(9):837–41.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Harrar HS, Jeffery S, Patton MA. Linkage analysis in blepharophimosis-ptosis syndrome confirms localisation to 3q21-24. J Med Genet. 1995;32(10):774–7.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    GBD 2013 Mortality and Causes of Death Collaborators. Global, regional, and national age-sex specific all-cause and cause-specific mortality for 240 causes of death, 1990-2013: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013. Lancet. 2015;385(9963):117–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Langrish JP, Mills NL, Bath LE, et al. Cardiovascular effects of physiological and standard sex steroid replacement regimens in premature ovarian failure. Hypertension. 2009;53(5):805–11.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Kanis JA, McCloskey EV, Johansson H, et al. European guidance for the diagnosis and management of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. Osteoporos Int. 2013;24(1):23–57.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Goldmeier S, De Angelis K, Rabello Casali K, et al. Cardiovascular autonomic dysfunction in primary ovarian insufficiency: clinical and experimental evidence. Am J Transl Res. 2013;6(1):91–101.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Gallagher LG, Davis LB, Ray RM, et al. Reproductive history and mortality from cardiovascular disease among women textile workers in Shanghai, China. Int J Epidemiol. 2011;40(6):1510–8.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Jacobsen BK, Nilssen S, Heuch I, Kvåle G. Does age at natural menopause affect mortality from ischemic heart disease? J Clin Epidemiol. 1997;50(4):475–9.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Knauff EAH, Westerveld HE, Goverde AJ, et al. Lipid profile of women with premature ovarian failure. Menopause. 2008;15(5):919–23.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Jacobsen BK, Knutsen SF, Fraser GE. Age at natural menopause and total mortality and mortality from ischemic heart disease: the Adventist Health Study. J Clin Epidemiol. 1999;52(4):303–7.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Mosca L, Benjamin EJ, Berra K, et al. Effectiveness-based guidelines for the prevention of cardiovascular disease in women—2011 update: a guideline from the American Heart Association. Circulation. 2011;123(11):1243–62.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Sumner JA, Kubzansky LD, Elkind MSV, et al. Trauma exposure and posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms predict onset of cardiovascular events in women. Circulation. 2015;132(4):251–9.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Freriks K, Timmermans J, Beerendonk CCM, et al. Standardized multidisciplinary evaluation yields significant previously undiagnosed morbidity in adult women with Turner syndrome. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2011;96(9):E1517–26.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Roeters van Lennep JE, Heida KY, Bots ML, Hoek A, Collaborators of the Dutch Multidisciplinary Guideline Development Group on Cardiovascular Risk Management after Reproductive Disorders. Cardiovascular disease risk in women with premature ovarian insufficiency: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Eur J Prev Cardiol. 2016;23(2):178–86.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Barrett-Connor E. Menopause, atherosclerosis, and coronary artery disease. Curr Opin Pharmacol. 2013;13(2):186–91.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Baba Y, Ishikawa S, Amagi Y, Kayaba K, Gotoh T, Kajii E. Premature menopause is associated with increased risk of cerebral infarction in Japanese women. Menopause. 2009;17(3):506–10.Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Parker WH, Broder MS, Chang E, et al. Ovarian conservation at the time of hysterectomy and long-term health outcomes in the nurses’ health study. Obstet Gynecol. 2009;113(5):1027–37.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Wu X, Cai H, Kallianpur A, et al. Impact of premature ovarian failure on mortality and morbidity among Chinese women. PLoS One. 2014;9(3):e89597.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Rocca WA, Grossardt BR, Miller VM, Shuster LT, Brown RD. Premature menopause or early menopause and risk of ischemic stroke. Menopause. 2012;19(3):272–7.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    van der Schouw YT, van der Graaf Y, Steyerberg EW, Eijkemans JC, Banga JD. Age at menopause as a risk factor for cardiovascular mortality. Lancet. 1996;347(9003):714–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Ates S, Yesil G, Sevket O, Molla T, Yildiz S. Comparison of metabolic profile and abdominal fat distribution between karyotypically normal women with premature ovarian insufficiency and age matched controls. Maturitas. 2014;79(3):306–10.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Kulaksizoglu M, Ipekci SH, Kebapcilar L, et al. Risk factors for diabetes mellitus in women with primary ovarian insufficiency. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2013;154(3):313–20.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Popat VB, Calis KA, Kalantaridou SN, et al. Bone mineral density in young women with primary ovarian insufficiency: results of a three-year randomized controlled trial of physiological transdermal estradiol and testosterone replacement. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2014;99(9):3418–26.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Popat VB, Calis KA, Vanderhoof VH, et al. Bone mineral density in estrogen-deficient young women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2009;94(7):2277–83.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Anasti JN, Kalantaridou SN, Kimzey LM, Defensor RA, Nelson LM. Bone loss in young women with karyotypically normal spontaneous premature ovarian failure. Obstet Gynecol. 1998;91(1):12–5.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Giraldo H, Benetti-Pinto C, Ferreira V, Garmes H, Yela D, Giraldo P. Standard hormone therapy is inadequate for bone density in premature ovarian insufficiency. Gynecol Endocrinol. 2017;33(4):283–6.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Gandhi J, Chen A, Dagur G, et al. Genitourinary syndrome of menopause: an overview of clinical manifestations, pathophysiology, etiology, evaluation, and management. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2016;215:704–11.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Labrie F, Archer D, Bouchard C, et al. Effect of age and aetiology of premature ovarian failure on symptoms at presentation: data from The West London POF Database. 8th Eur Congr Menopause/Matur Suppl. 2009;63(1):1–136.Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Kalantaridou SN, Vanderhoof VH, Calis KA, Corrigan EC, Troendle JF, Nelson LM. Sexual function in young women with spontaneous 46,XX primary ovarian insufficiency. Fertil Steril. 2008;90(5):1805–11.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Yela DA, Soares PM, Benetti-Pinto C. Influence of sexual function on the social relations and quality of life of women with premature ovarian insufficiency. Rev Bras Ginecol Obstet. 2018;40(02):66–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Karram MM, Yeko TR, Sauer MV, Bhatia NN. Urodynamic changes following hormonal replacement therapy in women with premature ovarian failure. Obs Gynecol. 1989;74(2):208–11.Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    Benetti-Pinto CL, Giraldo PC, Pacello PCC, Soares PM, Yela DA. Vaginal epithelium and microflora characteristics in women with premature ovarian failure under hormone therapy compared to healthy women. Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2015;292(1):159–64.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Pacello PCC, Yela DA, Rabelo S, Giraldo PC, Benetti-Pinto CL. Dyspareunia and lubrication in premature ovarian failure using hormonal therapy and vaginal health. Climacteric. 2014;17(4):342–7.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Suckling JA, Kennedy R, Lethaby A, Roberts H. Local oestrogen for vaginal atrophy in postmenopausal women (Review). Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2006;(4):CD001500.Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    Fenton AJ. Premature ovarian insufficiency: pathogenesis and management. J Midlife Health. 2015;6(4):147–53.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Meczekalski B, Podfigurna-Stopa A. Genetics of premature ovarian failure. Minerva Endocrinol. 2010;35(4):195–209.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Laven JSE. Primary ovarian insufficiency. Semin Reprod Med. 2016;34(4):230–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Bennetto L, Pennington BF, Porter D, Taylor AK, Hagerman RJ. Profile of cognitive functioning in women with the fragile X mutation. Neuropsychology. 2001;15(2):290–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Tartaglia NR, Howell S, Sutherland A, Wilson R, Wilson L. A review of trisomy X (47,XXX). Orphanet J Rare Dis. 2010;5(1):8.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Hogervorst E. Effects of gonadal hormones on cognitive behaviour in elderly men and women. J Neuroendocrinol. 2013;25(11):1182–95.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Torrealday S, Kodaman P, Pal L. Premature ovarian insufficiency—an update on recent advances in understanding and management. F1000Res. 2017;6:2069.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Rocca WA, Bower JH, Maraganore DM, et al. Increased risk of parkinsonism in women who underwent oophorectomy before menopause. Neurology. 2008;70(3):200–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Zhou G, Liu J, Sun F, Duan L, Yan B, Peng Q. Cognitive functioning in elderly women who underwent unilateral oophorectomy before menopause. Int J Neurosci. 2011;121(4):196–200.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Bove R, Secor E, Chibnik LB, et al. Age at surgical menopause influences cognitive decline and Alzheimer pathology in older women. Neurology. 2014;82(3):222–9.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Benetti-Pinto CL, Soares PM, Giraldo HPD, Yela DA. Role of the different sexuality domains on the sexual function of women with premature ovarian failure. J Sex Med. 2015;12(3):685–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    de Almeida DMB, Benetti-Pinto CL, Makuch MY. Sexual function of women with premature ovarian failure. Menopause. 2011;18(3):262–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Deeks AA, Gibson-Helm M, Teede H, Vincent A. Premature menopause: a comprehensive understanding of psychosocial aspects. Climacteric. 2011;14(5):565–72.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Graziottin A. Menopause and sexuality: key issues in premature menopause and beyond. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2010;1205(1):254–61.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    van der Stege JG, Groen H, van Zadelhoff SJN, et al. Decreased androgen concentrations and diminished general and sexual well-being in women with premature ovarian failure. Menopause. 2008;15(1):23–31.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Benetti-Pinto CL, de Almeida DMB, Makuch MY. Quality of life in women with premature ovarian failure. Gynecol Endocrinol. 2011;27(9):645–9.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Lumsden MA. The NICE guideline—menopause: diagnosis and management. Climacteric. 2016;19(5):426–9.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    ACOG Committte Opinon no. 502. Primary ovarian insufficiency in the adolescent. Obstet Gynecol. 2011;118(3):741–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Torrealday S, Pal L. Premature menopause. Endocrinol Metab Clin N Am. 2015;44(3):543–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Sassarini J, Lumsden MA, Critchley HOD. Sex hormone replacement in ovarian failure—new treatment concepts. Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2015;29(1):105–14.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Christin-Maitre S. Use of hormone replacement in females with endocrine disorders. Horm Res Paediatr. 2017;87(4):215–23.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Tsimaris P, Vrachnis N, Iliodromiti Z, Efthymios D. Long-term followup of adolescent and young adult females with hypergonadotropic hypogonadism. Int J Endocrinol. 2012;2012:1–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Janse F, Tanahatoe SJ, Eijkemans MJC, Fauser BCJM. Testosterone concentrations, using different assays, in different types of ovarian insufficiency: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Hum Reprod Update. 2012;18(4):405–19.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Davis SR, Tran J. Testosterone influences libido and well being in women. Trends Endocrinol Metab. 2001;12(1):33–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Guerrieri GMG, Martinez PE, Klug SPS, et al. Effects of physiologic testosterone therapy on quality of life, self-esteem, and mood in women with primary ovarian insufficiency. Menopause. 2014;21(9):952–61.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Sullivan SD, Sarrel PM, Nelson LM. Hormone replacement therapy in young women with primary ovarian insufficiency and early menopause. Fertil Steril. 2016;106(7):1588–99.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Crofton PM, Evans N, Bath LE, et al. Physiological versus standard sex steroid replacement in young women with premature ovarian failure: effects on bone mass acquisition and turnover. Clin Endocrinol. 2010;73(6):707–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Critchley HO, Buckley CH, Anderson DC. Experience with a “physiological” steroid replacement regimen for the establishment of a receptive endometrium in women with premature ovarian failure. Br J Obstet Gynaecol. 1990;97(9):804–10.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Critchley HO, Wallace WH, Shalet SM, Mamtora H, Higginson J, Anderson DC. Abdominal irradiation in childhood; the potential for pregnancy. Br J Obstet Gynaecol. 1992;99(5):392–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Bachelot A, Nicolas C, Gricourt S, et al. Poor compliance to hormone therapy and decreased bone mineral density in women with premature ovarian insufficiency. PLoS One. 2016;11(12):e0164638.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Podfigurna-Stopa A, Czyzyk A, Grymowicz M, et al. Premature ovarian insufficiency: the context of long-term effects. J Endocrinol Investig. 2016;39(9):983–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    van Kasteren YM, Schoemaker J. Premature ovarian failure: a systematic review on therapeutic interventions to restore ovarian function and achieve pregnancy. Hum Reprod Update. 1999;5(5):483–92.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Ferraù F, Gangemi S, Vita G, Trimarchi F, Cannavò S. Pregnancy after azathioprine therapy for ulcerative colitis in a woman with autoimmune premature ovarian failure and Addison’s disease: HLA haplotype characterization. Fertil Steril. 2011;95(7):2430.e15–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Lutjen P, Trounson A, Leeton J, Findlay J, Wood C, Renou P. The establishment and maintenance of pregnancy using in vitro fertilization and embryo donation in a patient with primary ovarian failure. Nature. 1994;307(5947):174–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Ameratunga D, Weston G, Osianlis T, Catt J, Vollenhoven B. In vitro fertilisation (IVF) with donor eggs in post-menopausal women: are there differences in pregnancy outcomes in women with premature ovarian failure (POF) compared with women with physiological age-related menopause? J Assist Reprod Genet. 2009;26(9-10):511–4.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Grynberg M, Bidet M, Benard J, et al. Fertility preservation in Turner syndrome. Fertil Steril. 2016;105(1):13–9.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Albani E, Bracone G, Di S, Vitobello D, Fattizzi N, Emanuele P. Human ovarian tissue cryopreservation as fertility reserve. In: Topics in cancer survivorship. Rijeka, Croatia: InTech; 2012.Google Scholar
  125. 125.
    Van der Ven H, Liebenthron J, Beckmann M, et al. Ninety-five orthotopic transplantations in 74 women of ovarian tissue after cytotoxic treatment in a fertility preservation network: tissue activity, pregnancy and delivery rates. Hum Reprod. 2016;31(9):2031–41.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Kawamura K, Cheng Y, Suzuki N, et al. Hippo signaling disruption and Akt stimulation of ovarian follicles for infertility treatment. Proc Natl Acad Sci. 2013;110(43):17474–9.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Kotz K, Alexander JL, Dennerstein L. Estrogen and androgen hormone therapy and well-being in surgically postmenopausal women. J Women’s Heal. 2006;15(8):898–908.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Amarante F, Vilodre LC, Maturana MA, Spritzer PM. Women with primary ovarian insufficiency have lower bone mineral density. Braz J Med Biol Res. 2011;44(1):78–83.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Cartwright B, Robinson J, Seed PT, Fogelman I, Rymer J. Hormone replacement therapy versus the combined oral contraceptive pill in premature ovarian failure: a randomized controlled trial of the effects on bone mineral density. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2016;101(9):3497–505.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Chatterjee R, Katz M, Bajoria R. Use of hormone replacement therapy for correction of high turnover bone disease in hypogonadal β-Thalassemia Major patients presenting with osteoporosis: comparison with idiopathic premature ovarian failure. Hemoglobin. 2011;35(5-6):653–8.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Lopez LM, Grimes DA, Schulz KF, Curtis KM, Chen M. Steroidal contraceptives: effect on bone fractures in women. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014;6:CD006033.Google Scholar
  132. 132.
    File S, Heard J, Rymer J. Trough oestradiol levels associated with cognitive impairment in post-menopausal women after 10 years of oestradiol implants. Psychopharmacology. 2002;161(1):107–12.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Rocca WA, Grossardt BR, Shuster LT. Oophorectomy, estrogen, and dementia: A 2014 update. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2014;389(1-2):7–12.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Kalantaridou SN, Naka KK, Papanikolaou E, et al. Impaired endothelial function in young women with premature ovarian failure: normalization with hormone therapy. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2004;89(8):3907–13.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Agnieszka Podfigurna
    • 1
  • Monika Grymowicz
    • 2
  • Anna Szeliga
    • 1
  • Ewa Rudnicka
    • 2
  • Marzena Maciejewska-Jeske
    • 1
  • Roman Smolarczyk
    • 2
  • Blazej Meczekalski
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Gynecological EndocrinologyPoznan University of Medical SciencesPoznanPoland
  2. 2.Department of Gynecological EndocrinologyWarsaw Medical UniversityWarsawPoland

Personalised recommendations