Menopausal Hormone Therapy to Prevent Chronic Conditions

  • Rafael Sánchez-BorregoEmail author


The most efficient approach for relief of the vasomotor symptoms of the menopause at any age comprises MHT based on estrogens (alone or in combination with progestogens), tibolone, and the combination of conjugated estrogens and bazedoxifene. Randomized placebo-controlled trials have demonstrated that low-dose vaginal estrogen, intravaginal dehydroepiandrosterone, and oral ospemifene effectively improve vaginal comfort and trophism. Findings from randomized clinical trials, as well as preclinical, clinical, and epidemiologic studies, clarify the favorable benefit-risk profile for MHT use by recently menopausal women (also known as the timing hypothesis) with bothersome vasomotor and related menopausal symptoms. The window-of-opportunity theory has been extended to other putative benefits of hormone therapy, including reducing dementia, improving cognition, and preventing mood disorders. However, supporting evidence is limited. We must emphasize the individualization and shared decision-making that facilitates the appropriate decisions regarding the use of MHT.


Menopause Menopausal hormone therapy Vasomotor symptoms Cardiovascular disease Breast cancer Cognitive impairment Depression Dyspareunia Vaginal dryness 



Alzheimer’s disease


Breast cancer


Bone mineral density


Combination of conjugated estrogens and bazedoxifene


Coronary heart disease


Cardiovascular disease






Unopposed estrogen therapy


Combined therapy of estrogen and progestogen


Estrogen receptor


Female Sexual Function Index


Hazard ratio


Hypoactive sexual desire disorder


Kronos Early Estrogen Prevention Study


Last menstrual period


Levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system


Menopausal hormone therapy


Natural progesterone


Pelvic organ prolapse


Quality of life


Randomized controlled trial


Reactive oxygen species


Selective estrogen receptor modulator


Tissue-selective estrogen complex


Vasomotor symptoms


Venous thromboembolism


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.DIATROS, Clínica de Atención a la MujerBarcelonaSpain

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