Polycystic Ovary Syndrome-Related Risks in Postmenopausal Women

  • Panagiotis Anagnostis
  • Stavroula A. Paschou
  • Irene Lambrinoudaki
  • Dimitrios G. Goulis


Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors, such as impaired glucose metabolism dyslipidaemia and arterial hypertension, predisposing to CVD in post-reproductive life. Despite the clustering of these risk factors, an association between PCOS and CVD has not been established in postmenopausal women. Relevant studies are characterized by methodological factors, such as heterogeneity in both PCOS and CVD definitions in postmenopausal women, study design, small sample size, amelioration of menstruation with ageing, and insufficient follow-up duration. Well-designed, high-quality prospective studies are needed to establish or exclude an effect of PCOS on type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and CVD risk in postmenopausal women, irrespective of obesity, ageing or menopause per se. Finally, PCOS may be associated with an increased risk of endometrial cancer; such an association has not been shown with other types of gynaecological cancer, such as breast or ovarian cancer.


Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) Postmenopausal women Diabetes Cardiovascular disease Cancer 


Competing Interest

None to declare.

Funding: None.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Panagiotis Anagnostis
    • 1
  • Stavroula A. Paschou
    • 2
  • Irene Lambrinoudaki
    • 3
  • Dimitrios G. Goulis
    • 4
  1. 1.Unit of Reproductive Endocrinology, First Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Medical SchoolAristotle University of Thessaloniki, “Papageorgiou” General HospitalThessalonikiGreece
  2. 2.Division of Endocrinology and Diabetes, “Aghia Sophia” Hospital, Medical SchoolNational and Kapodistrian University of AthensAthensGreece
  3. 3.Division of Endocrinology and Diabetes, Second Department of Obstetrics and GynaecologyMedical School, National and Kapodistrian University of AthensAthensGreece
  4. 4.Unit of Reproductive Endocrinology, First Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Medical SchoolAristotle University of ThessalonikiThessalonikiGreece

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