Current Treatment Modalities for the Genitourinary Syndrome of Menopause

  • Cemal Tamer Erel


Genitourinary syndrome of menopause (GSM) is a relatively new term instead of the previously used term of vulvovaginal atrophy. It is common, but the problem is underestimated. There are a wide range of symptoms and signs in the urogenital area. Careful history taking and examination are the essential parts to identify the impact of GSM on quality of life. As the GSM is a chronic condition, it requires long-term therapy. The essential of the therapy should aim to maintain normal vulvovaginal physiology. The therapy of GSM includes lifestyle modifications and non-hormonal, hormonal, and laser treatments. This chapter summarizes the safety and effectiveness of available treatment modalities.


Genitourinary syndrome of menopause (GSM) Moisturizers Lubricants Estrogen therapy Tibolone Ospemifene Bazedoxifene-conjugated equine estrogen Dehydroepiandrosterone Laser 


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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Cemal Tamer Erel
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Obstetrics and GynecologyCerrahpasa School of Medicine, Istanbul UniversityIstanbulTurkey

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