Cerebral Palsy and Other Neuromuscular Conditions
The burden of cerebral palsy (CP) is large, with an annual incidence of 2–3 per 1000 live births worldwide. Most cases remain without a formal diagnosis, and survive with varying degrees of disability in environments with little access to health services or social welfare infrastructure. CP is a nonprogressive developmental disability of motion and posture arising from injury to the immature brain. It presents on a spectrum from the mildly involved hemiplegic child to one with spastic quadriplegia who has multiple contractures that interfere with ambulation, positioning, and care and may have scoliosis, mental retardation, and coexisting medical problems (Fig. 40.1). Non-orthopedic abnormalities are common and often unrecognized. Treatment strategies are aimed at improving funciton and ease of care.
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