Clubfoot Etiology, Pathoanatomy, Basic Ponseti Technique, and Ponseti in Older Patients

  • Alaric Aroojis
  • Shafique Pirani
  • Bibek Banskota
  • Ashok Kumar Banskota
  • David A. Spiegel


Clubfoot or congenital talipes equinovarus (CTEV) is a hindfoot deformity caused by malalignment at the talocalcaneonavicular complex (Fig. 1) with a worldwide incidence of approximately 1 in 1000 live births.

Suggested Reading

  1. Banskota B, Banskota AK, Regmi R, Rajbhandary T, Shrestha OP, Spiegel DA. The Ponseti method in the treatment of children with idiopathic clubfoot presenting between five and ten years of age. Bone Joint J. 2013;95–B:1721–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Banskota B, Yadav P, Rajbhandary T, Shrestha OP, Talwar D, Banskota AK, Spiegel DA. Outcomes of the Ponseti method in untreated clubfeet in Nepalese patients presenting between one and five years of age at more than ten years follow-up. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2018;100:2004–14. (Open Access).Google Scholar
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Additional Resources

  1. Basic Ponseti casting technique.
  2. Global Clubfoot Initiative.
  3. Ponseti IV. Congenital clubfoot: fundamentals of treatment. New York: Oxford University Press; 1996. (Open Access).
  4. Ponseti International Association.
  5. Ponseti: virtual correction.

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alaric Aroojis
    • 1
  • Shafique Pirani
    • 2
  • Bibek Banskota
    • 3
    • 4
  • Ashok Kumar Banskota
    • 3
    • 4
  • David A. Spiegel
    • 5
    • 6
  1. 1.Department of Bone SurgeryKokilaben Dhigrubhai Ambani Hospital & Bai Jerbai Wadia Hospital for ChildrenMumbaiIndia
  2. 2.Department of OrthopedicsRoyal Columbian HospitalNorth VancouverCanada
  3. 3.Department of Orthopedic SurgeryB&B HospitalKathmanduNepal
  4. 4.Department of Orthopedic SurgeryThe Hospital and Rehabilitation Center for Disabled Children (HRDC)BanepaNepal
  5. 5.Division of Orthopedic Surgery, Children’s Hospital of PhiladelphiaUniversity of Pennsylvania School of MedicinePhiladelphiaUSA
  6. 6.Hospital and Rehabilitation Centre for Disabled Children (HRDC)BanepaNepal

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