Children with bacterial chronic osteomyelitis typically present at advanced stages in austere environments, making treatment complex, lengthy, and less likely to achieve eradication of infection and adequate return of function. However, childrens’ capacity to repair and remodel diseased bone, especially with an intact periosteum, makes them candidates for all efforts to treat this disabling condition. Acute osteomyelitis evolves into a chronic state of infection in which there is persistent devitalized bone and/or debris. The definition of when an acute infection becomes “chronic” is somewhat arbitrary, as reflected in the classification system and treatment options.
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