Trauma of the Ankle and Foot

  • R. Richard CoughlinEmail author
  • Raphael Kumah-Ametepey


The incidence of lower leg, foot, and ankle fractures, dislocations, and injuries presents an enormous challenge to orthopedic clinicians and practitioners especially in less-resourced countries. Fortunately, the vast majority of these injuries are low energy and can be treated successfully with closed methods of splinting or plaster of Paris (POP). As many of these fractures are intra-articular, inadequate or poor treatment can result in significant morbidity, disability, and loss of livelihood. Due to the lack of robust soft tissue coverage to the lower leg, foot, and ankle, well-intentioned operative procedures can result in disastrous infections or wound healing problems. The most important principle of treatment is to achieve a stable plantigrade foot while avoiding complications.


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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Orthopedic SurgeryZuckerberg San Francisco General Hospital & Trauma CenterSan FranciscoUSA
  2. 2.Department of Trauma and OrthopedicsKomfo Anokye Teaching HospitalKumasiGhana

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