The elbow is a fascinating and important joint for proper upper extremity function. Useful elbow motion ranges from −30° extension to 130° flexion with 50° each supination and pronation. Post-injury restoration of function depends on early, progressive range of motion. In low- and middle-income countries (LMIC), old, poorly treated, or untreated elbow trauma is the common presentation. For these, early motion is impossible, and elbow stiffness is the normal end result. With this reality in mind, this chapter will touch on practices and procedures to help surgeons approach and treat some of the more common acute and chronic traumatic problems in the elbow and forearm, with a brief review of heterotopic ossification and inflammatory, degenerative, and post-traumatic elbow arthroses.
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