Introduction to Trauma in Austere Environments

  • Michelle FoltzEmail author
  • Nadine B. Semer
  • Richard A. Gosselin
  • Geoffrey Walker


Until recently, injuries were considered accidental events, occurring randomly—unpredictable and unavoidable. The 1996 Global Burden of Disease (GBD) study showed that at the population level, injuries and their sequelae are like all other diseases and conditions that lead to premature death or ill health. Many people were surprised to learn that traumatic injuries accounted for 15% of the total global burden of disease. No surgeon with experience in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) would be surprised, as injuries in general—and road traffic injuries (RTI) in particular—are widely acknowledged as the “neglected epidemic” of the developing world.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Michelle Foltz
    • 1
    Email author
  • Nadine B. Semer
    • 2
  • Richard A. Gosselin
    • 3
  • Geoffrey Walker
    • 4
  1. 1.ColumbusUSA
  2. 2.Salinas Valley Memorial Healthcare System, Palliative MedicineSalinasUSA
  3. 3.San Francisco General Hospital, Institute for Global Orthopedics and TraumatologySan FranciscoUSA
  4. 4.World Orthopedic ConcernLondonUK

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