A History of Orthopedics in Austere Settings

  • Michelle FoltzEmail author
  • Geoffrey Walker
  • James C. Cobey


With the growth of their specialty after World War II, orthopedic surgeons have worked to develop, expand, and improve orthopedic care and teaching in resource-poor countries. Nongovernmental and governmental organizations, religious and secular charities, and individuals have played, and continue to play, a role in the developing world, establishing and strengthening training programs and providing service. The primary nature of orthopedic injuries and disease, the significant increase in orthopedic trauma as the world relentlessly develops, and the “can-do” attitudes that shape the profession all point to an increasing involvement of Western surgeons in international work.

Further Reading

  1. Conway DJ, et al. The Institute for Global Orthopedics and Traumatology: a model for academic collaboration in orthopedic surgery. Front Public Health. 2017;5:146. Scholar
  2. Coughlin RR, Kelly N. Nongovernmental organizations in musculoskeletal care. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2008;466:2438–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Derkash RS, Kelly N. The history of orthopaedics overseas. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2002;396:30–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Zirkle L. Injuries in developing countries—how can we help?: the role of orthopaedic surgeons. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2008;466(10):2443–50. Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Michelle Foltz
    • 1
    Email author
  • Geoffrey Walker
    • 2
  • James C. Cobey
    • 3
  1. 1.ColumbusUSA
  2. 2.World Orthopedic ConcernLondonUK
  3. 3.International Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public HealthWashington, DCUSA

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