Advertisement

Experimental Characterisation: Rich Deformations

  • Cormac FlynnEmail author
Chapter
  • 530 Downloads
Part of the Studies in Mechanobiology, Tissue Engineering and Biomaterials book series (SMTEB, volume 22)

Abstract

Human skin is a complex material that exhibits a non-linear stress-strain response, anisotropy, and viscoelasticity. In addition, skin in vivo is under an anisotropic pre-stress, which varies according to location and person. While several methods have been developed to measure the in vivo mechanical response of skin, many of these are incapable of characterising the anisotropy. Few also attempt to measure the in vivo stress. To quantify the anisotropy, it is necessary to apply deformations to the skin in a number of directions. This chapter provides an overview of a method where a rich set of deformations are applied to the surface of the skin and the nonlinear, anisotropic, and viscoelastic response is characterised using finite element analyses and nonlinear optimisation. The in vivo stress is also estimated. Different constitutive models were tested as to their suitability to represent skin. Material parameters and pre-stresses were identified for points on the anterior forearm, upper arm, and the face.

References

  1. 1.
    Affagard J-S, Wijanto F, Allain J-M (2017) Improving the experimental protocol for a more accurate identification of a given mechanical behaviour in a single assay: Application to skin. Strain 53(5):e12236CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Ateshian GA, Costa KD (2009) A frame-invariant formulation of Fung elasticity. J Biomech 42(6):781–785CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bischoff JE, Arruda EM, Grosh K (2000) Finite element modeling of human skin using an isotropic, nonlinear elastic constitutive model. J Biomech 33(6):645–652CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Bischoff JE, Arruda EA, Grosh K (2002) A microstructurally based orthotropic hyperelastic constitutive law. J Appl Mech Trans ASME 69(5):570–579zbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Borges AF (1989) Relaxed skin tension lines. Dermatol Clin 7(1):169–177CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Chen Y, Hunter IW (2009) In vivo characterization of skin using a weiner nonlinear stochastic system identification method. Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc 2009:6010–6013Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Coutts LV, Miller NR, Mortimer PS, Bamber JC (2016) Investigation of In Vivo skin stiffness anisotropy in breast cancer related lymphoedema. J Biomech 49(1), 94–99CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Cowley K, Vanoosthuyze K (2016) The biomechanics of blade shaving. Int J Cosmet Sci 38(S1):17–23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    de Jong LAM (1995) Pre-tension and anisotropy in skin: modelling and experimentsGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Diridollou S, Patat F, Gens F, Vaillant L, Black D, Lagarde JM, Gall Y, Berson M (2000) In vivo model of the mechanical properties of the human skin under suction. Skin Res Technol 6(4):214–221CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Evans SL, Holt CA (2009) Measuring the mechanical properties of human skin in vivo using digital image correlation and finite element modelling J Strain Anal Eng Des 44(5):337–345CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Flynn C, Taberner A, Nielsen P (2011) Modeling the mechanical response of in vivo human skin under a rich set of deformations. Ann Biomed Eng 39(7):1935–1946CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Flynn C, Taberner AJ, Nielsen PMF, Fels S (2013) Simulating the three-dimensional deformation of in vivo facial skin. J Mech Behav Biomed Mater 28:484–494CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Flynn C, Taberner AT, Fels S, Nielsen PMF (2018) Comparison of anisotropic models to simulate the mechanical response of facial skin. In: Computer methods in biomechanics and biomedical engineering. Springer, NewYork, pp 43–55CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Fung YC (1993) Biomechanics: mechanical properties of living tissues. Springer, New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Furnas DW (1989) The retaining ligaments of the cheek. Plast Reconstr Surg 83(1):11–16MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Gasser TC, Ogden RW, Holzapfel GA (2006) Hyperelastic modelling of arterial layers with distributed collagen fibre orientations. J R Soc Interface 3(6), 15–35CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Ha RY, Nojima K, Adams WP, Brown SA (2005) Analysis of facial skin thickness: defining the relative thickness index. Plast Reconstr Surg 115(6):1769–1773CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    HajiRassouliha A, Kmiecik B, Taberner AJ, Nash MP, Nielsen PMF (2015) A low-cost, hand-held stereoscopic device for measuring dynamic deformations of skin in vivo. In: 2015 international conference on Image and Vision Computing New Zealand (IVCNZ) IEEE, New York, pp 1–6Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Hsu C-C, Tsai W-C, Hsiao T-Y, Tseng F-Y, Shau Y-W, Wang C-L, Lin S-C (2009) Diabetic effects on microchambers and macrochambers tissue properties in human heel pads. Clin Biomech 24(8):682–686CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Jacquet E, Josse G, Khatyr F, Garcin C (2008) A new experimental method for measuring skin’s natural tension. Skin Res Technol 14(1):1–7Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Jin X, Zhu DD, Chen BZ, Ashfaq M, Guo XD (2018) Insulin delivery systems combined with microneedle technology. Adv Drug Delivery Rev 127:119–137CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Jor J, Nash M, Nielsen P, Hunter P (2011) Estimating material parameters of a structurally based constitutive relation for skin mechanics. Biomech Model Mechanobiol 10(5):767–778CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Karwoski AC, Plaut RH (2004) Experiments on peeling adhesive tapes from human forearms. Skin Res Technol 10(4):271–277CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Kelly R, Watts L (2017) Slow but likeable? Inefficient robots as caring team members. Robots in Groups and Teams, p 1Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Killaars RC, Lopez Penha TR, Heuts EM, van der Hulst RRJW, Piatkowski AA (2015) Biomechanical properties of the skin in patients with breast cancer-related lymphedema compared to healthy individuals. Lymphat Res Biol 13(3):215–221CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Kvistedal YA, Nielsen PMF (2009) Estimating material parameters of human skin in vivo. Biomech Model Mechanobiol 8(1):1–8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Liu L, Kuffel K, Scott DK, Constantinescu G, Chung H-J, Rieger J (2017) Silicone-based adhesives for long-term skin application: cleaning protocols and their effect on peel strength. Biomed Phys Eng Express 4(1):015004CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Lu J, Zhou X, Raghavan ML (2008) Inverse method of stress analysis for cerebral aneurysms. Biomech Model Mechanobiol 7(6):477–486CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Maas SA, Ellis BJ, Ateshian GA, Weiss JA (2012) FEBio: finite elements for biomechanics. J Biomech Eng 134(1):011005CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Mori M, MacDorman KF, Kageki N (2012) The uncanny valley [from the field]. IEEE Robot Autom Mag 19(2):98–100CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Ogden RW (1972) Large deformation isotropic elasticity - on the correlation of theory and experiment for incompressible rubberlike solids. Proc R Soc Lond A Math Phys Sci 326(1567):565–584zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Ogden RW, Saccomandi G, Sgura I (2004) Fitting hyperelastic models to experimental data. Comput Mech 34(6):484–502zbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Ohshima H, Tada A, Kanamaru A, Akamatsu H, Sakai Y, Itoh M, Kanto H (2011) Relevance of the directionality of skin elasticity to aging and sagging of the face. Skin Res Technol 17(1):101–107CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Parker MD, Jones LA, Hunter IW, Taberner AJ, Nash MP, Nielsen PMF (2017) Multidirectional in vivo characterization of skin using Wiener nonlinear stochastic system identification techniques. J Biomech Eng 139(1):011004CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Reihsner R, Balogh B, Menzel EJ (1995) Two-dimensional elastic properties of human skin in terms of an incremental model at the in vivo configuration. Med Eng Phys 17(4):304–313Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Sagar M, Bullivant D, Robertson P, Efimov O, Jawed K, Kalarot R, Wu T (2014) A neurobehavioural framework for autonomous animation of virtual human faces. In: SIGGRAPH Asia 2014 autonomous virtual humans and social robot for telepresence. ACM, New York, p. 2Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Tepole AB, Gart M, Gosain AK, Kuhl E (2014) Characterization of living skin using multi-view stereo and isogeometric analysis. Acta Biomater 10(11), 4822–4831CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Then C, Stassen B, Depta K, Silber G (2017) New methodology for mechanical characterization of human superficial facial tissue anisotropic behaviour in vivo. J Mech Behav Biomed Mater 71:68–79CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Tong P, Fung Y-C (1976) The stress-strain relationship for the skin. J Biomech 9(10):649–657CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Tonge TK, Atlan LS, Voo LM, Nguyen TD (2013) Full-field bulge test for planar anisotropic tissues: part I - experimental methods applied to human skin tissue. Acta Biomater 9(4):5913–5925Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Trowbridge MM, Wang B, Gutshall D, Rodenberg CA, Farage MA (2017) A randomized, controlled trial comparing skin health effects and comfort of two adult incontinence protective underwear. Skin Res Technol 23(2):202–211CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Galway-Mayo Institute of TechnologyGalwayIreland

Personalised recommendations