Advertisement

Increasing the Resilience of Cultural Heritage to Climate Change Through the Application of a Learning Strategy

  • Elena Sesana
  • Chiara Bertolin
  • Arian Loli
  • Alexandre S. Gagnon
  • John HughesEmail author
  • Johanna Leissner
Conference paper
  • 873 Downloads
Part of the Communications in Computer and Information Science book series (CCIS, volume 961)

Abstract

There is growing concern about the threat posed by climate change to cultural heritage, notably to World Heritage properties. Climate change is triggering changes in rainfall patterns, humidity and temperature, as well as increasing exposure to severe weather events that can negatively impact on cultural heritage materials and structures by enhancing the mechanical, chemical and biological processes causing degradation. In response to this climate change challenge, the Climate for Culture (CfC) project, funded by the European Commission, investigated the impacts of climate change on the European cultural heritage through the use of a high-resolution regional climate model that projected future changes in climatic conditions, and simulated the future conditions of the interiors of historical buildings and their impacts on the collections they hold using building simulation tools. This paper compares the climate change impacts on cultural heritage identified by the CfC project with semi-structured interviews with experts working on cultural heritage preservation in Norway, Italy and the UK. Hence, the perceptions of the cultural heritage community on the impacts of climate change on heritage assets are first explored, which are then compared with the risk matrices produced by the CfC project as a decision-support tool to inform managers involved in the preservation of cultural heritage. In addition, the learning strategy underpinning examples of climate change adaptive measures applied to cultural heritage is discussed. Through the identification of the current learning strategy in the case study sites, this research highlights the lack of dissemination of the outcomes of scientific research to managers of cultural heritage in the context of adaptation to climate change impacts.

Keywords

Resilience Adaptation Climate change Cultural heritage Learning strategies 

References

  1. Argyris, C., Schön, D.: Organizational Learning: A Theory of Action Perspective. Addison Wesley, Reading (1987)Google Scholar
  2. Bertolin, C., Camuffo, D.: Climate change impact on movable and immovable cultural heritage throughout Europe, Climate for Culture, Deliverable 5.2 (2014)Google Scholar
  3. Brimblecombe, P., Grossi, C.M., Harris, I.: Climate change critical to cultural heritage. In: Gökçekus, H., Türker, U., Lamoreaux, J.W. (eds.) Survival and Sustainability: Environmental Concerns in the 21st Century, pp. 195–205. Springer, Heidelberg (2011).  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-540-95991-5_20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Carmichael, B., et al.: Local and Indigenous management of climate change risks to archaeological sites. Mitig. Adapt. Strateg. Glob. Change 23, 231–255 (2017a)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Carmichael, B., Wilson, G., Namarnyilk, I., Nadji, S., Cahill, J., Bird, D.: Testing the scoping phase of a bottom-up planning guide designed to support Australian Indigenous rangers manage the impacts of climate change on cultural heritage sites. Local Environ. 22, 1197–1216 (2017b)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Casey, A.: Climate Change and Coastal Cultural Heritage: Insights from Three National Parks. Open Access Dissertations, University of Rhode Island (2018)Google Scholar
  7. Cassar, J.: Climate change and archaeological sites: adaptation strategies. In: Lefèvre, R.-A., Sabbioni, C. (eds.) Cultural Heritage from Pollution to Climate Change. Edipuglia srl., Barri (2016)Google Scholar
  8. Cassar, M.: Climate Change and the Historic Environment. Centre for Sustainable Heritage, University College London, London (2005)Google Scholar
  9. Cassar, M., Pender, R.: The impact of climate change on cultural heritage: evidence and response. In: ICOM Committee for Conservation: 14th Triennial Meeting the Hague Preprints (2005)Google Scholar
  10. Fatorić, S., Seekamp, E.: Evaluating a decision analytic approach to climate change adaptation of cultural resources along the Atlantic Coast of the United States. Land Use Policy 68, 254–263 (2017a)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Fatorić, S., Seekamp, E.: Securing the future of cultural heritage by identifying barriers to and strategizing solutions for preservation under changing climate conditions. Sustainability 9, 2143 (2017b)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Gray, S.R.J., et al.: Are coastal managers detecting the problem? Assessing stakeholder perception of climate vulnerability using fuzzy cognitive mapping. Ocean Coastal Manag. 94, 74–89 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Grøntoft, T.: Climate change impact on building surfaces and façades. Int. J. Clim. Change Strateg. Manag. 3, 374–385 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Hall, C.M.: Heritage, heritage tourism and climate change. J. Herit. Tour. 11, 1–9 (2015)Google Scholar
  15. Hall, C.M., Baird, T., James, M., Ram, Y.: Climate change and cultural heritage: conservation and heritage tourism in the Anthropocene. J. Herit. Tour. 11, 10–24 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Hanssen-Bauer, I., et al.: Climate in Norway 2100 NCCS report no. 1/2017 Lead authors – a knowledge base for climate adaptation. Miljødirektoratet (2017). http://www.miljodirektoratet.no/M741/. Accessed 25 Sep 2018
  17. Haugen, A., Mattsson, J.: Preparations for climate change’s influences on cultural heritage. Int. J. Clim. Change Strateg. Manag. 3, 386–401 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Heathcote, J., Fluck, H., Wiggins, M.: Predicting and adapting to climate change: challenges for the historic environment. Hist. Environ. Policy Pract. 8, 89–100 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. HES: A climate change risk assessment. screening for natural hazards to inform of the properties in care of historic environment Scotland. Historic Environment Scotland (2018)Google Scholar
  20. IPCC: Summary for Policymakers, Emissions Scenarios, A Special Report of IPCC Working Group III, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (2000). https://ipcc.ch/pdf/special-reports/spm/sres-en.pdf. Accessed 25 Sep 2018
  21. IPCC: Climate Change 2014: Synthesis Report. Contribution of Working Groups I, II and III to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Core Writing Team, Pachauri, R.K., Meyer, L.A. (eds.)]. IPCC, Geneva, Switzerland, 151 pp. (2014)Google Scholar
  22. Leissner, J., et al.: Climate for Culture: assessing the impact of climate change on the future indoor climate in historic buildings using simulations. Herit. Sci. 3, 38 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Loli, A., Bertolin, C.: Indoor multi-risk scenarios of climate change effects on building materials in Scandinavian countries. Geosciences 8, 347 (2018)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. McDonald-Madden, E., et al.: Active adaptive conservation of threatened species in the face of uncertainty. Ecol. Appl. 20, 1476–1489 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Phillips, H.: Adaptation to climate change at UK world heritage sites: progress and challenges. Hist. Environ. Policy Pract. 5, 288–299 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Pollard-Belsheim, A., Storey, M., Robinson, C., Bell, T.: The CARRA project: developing tools to help managers identify and respond to coastal hazard impacts on archaeological resources. IEEE (2014)Google Scholar
  27. Sabbioni, C., Brimblecombe, P., Cassar, M.: The Atlas of Climate Change Impact on European Cultural Heritage. Scientific Analysis and Management Strategies. Anthem Press, London (2010)Google Scholar
  28. Sabbioni, C., Cassar, M., Brimblecombe, P., Lefevre, R.A.: Vulnerability of cultural heritage to climate change. European and Mediterranean Major Hazards Agreement (EUR-OPA), Council of Europe, Strasbourg (2008)Google Scholar
  29. Sesana, E., Gagnon, A., Bertolin, C., Hughes, J.: Adapting cultural heritage to climate change risks: perspectives of cultural heritage experts in Europe. Geosciences 8, 305 (2018)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Tanner-Mcallister, S.L., Rhodes, J., Hockings, M.: Managing for climate change on protected areas: an adaptive management decision making framework. J. Environ. Manag. 204, 510–518 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Thomson, A.M., et al.: RCP4.5: a pathway for stabilization of radiative forcing by 2100. Clim. Change 109, 77 (2011).  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10584-011-0151-4CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Williams, B.K.: Passive and active adaptive management: approaches and an example. J. Environ. Manag. 92, 1371–1378 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Computing, Engineering and Physical SciencesUniversity of the West of ScotlandPaisleyUK
  2. 2.Department of Architecture and TechnologyNorwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU)TrondheimNorway
  3. 3.School of Natural Sciences and PsychologyLiverpool John Moores UniversityLiverpoolUK
  4. 4.Fraunhofer Gesellschaft zur Förderung der angewandten ForschungMunichGermany

Personalised recommendations