Vandalized Frescoes’ Virtual Retouching

  • Melina Aikaterini Vlachou
  • Dimitrios MakrisEmail author
  • Leonidas Karampinis
Conference paper
Part of the Communications in Computer and Information Science book series (CCIS, volume 961)


In this study, we present the results of the application of virtual color restoration on the vandalized frescoes of the Church of Saint John (located in the courtyard of the University of West Attica Campus II). In order to retrieve the monument’s interior and exterior, three-dimensional scanning technology and photogrammetry were implemented in two distinct periods. In 2010, scanning through terrestrial laser scanner and capturing the interior were held. documentation via photogrammetry took place in 2016. Due to the extensive vandalism that suffered its interior, the current documentation was limited only to the monument’s exterior. For the application of digital color restoration, firstly we decided to individually apply the three retouching techniques in the virtual environment: chromatic abstraction, neutral color and mimetic color restoration technique. As the optical result of the virtual interventions was not aesthetically correct, we decided to combine contemporary aesthetic approaches, as well as basic retouching techniques and apply them in an original way: chromatic abstraction, neutral color and mimetic color restoration technique, which lead to a new mixed method. According to the Venice Charter article 9 retouching aims to restore the aesthetic value of the monument with respect to its historic value and must stop where conjecture begins. Furthermore, the retouching techniques should be visibly distinct by the authentic painting layer and any intervention made should be based on archaeological and historical knowledge. Therefore, the workflow which was decided to follow, complied with the Code of Ethics of Conservation of Cultural Heritage.


Virtual retouching Digital color restoration Three-dimensional scanning technology Close-range photogrammetry Frescoes Cultural heritage 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of West AtticaAthensGreece

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