Advertisement

How Violent Epistemology Shapes Schooling Systems: The Development of Public Schooling in Brazil and São Paulo

  • Beth M. Titchiner
Chapter
Part of the Critical Political Theory and Radical Practice book series (CPTRP)

Abstract

This chapter demonstrates, through the example of the development of schooling in Brazil and São Paulo, how violent epistemology shapes schooling systems. This history is traced from the use of schooling to catechise the indigenous population and provide a pliant work force during the colonial era, through the failure to provide education from the mid-eighteenth to late nineteenth centuries due to a lack of perceived economic need, the later development of schooling as a means to progress the ideological endeavours of an elite aspiring to ‘civilise the nation’, the establishment of typical nineteenth century style schooling to meet the needs of industrial capitalism, and finally the introduction of neoliberal technocratic reforms aimed to depoliticise students and train them for the labour market, along with legal, physical, and coercive repression of teacher and student dissent. The role of violent epistemology in these processes is discussed, including how this has resulted in successive reforms without sufficient regard to particular contextual needs, as well as non-conducive circumstances within schools and the neutralisation of attempts to enact less violent epistemic practice.

References

  1. Amann, E., & Baer, W. (2002). Neoliberalism and Its Consequences in Brazil. Journal of Latin American Studies, 34(3), 945–959.Google Scholar
  2. Americano, V. R. (2011). Os Professores em Completação de Jornada (CJ) na Rede Municipal de Educação de São Paulo (2011): Condições do trabalho e implicações no currículo. Dissertation. Pontifícia Universidade Católica de São Paulo. Retrieved February 2, 2018, from https://sapientia.pucsp.br/bitstream/handle/9627/1/Vanessa%20Rossi%20Americano.pdf.
  3. Aranha, M. L. A. (1996). História da Educação. São Paulo: Moderna.Google Scholar
  4. Arrais do Nascimento, P. E., Rodrigues, D. F., Lima, R. D., & Oliveira, P. F. (2012). Historia da Educação no Brasil e a Prática Docente Diante das Novas Tecnologias. IX National Seminar of Studies and Research on History, Society and Education in Brazil, 31 July–3 August, João Pessoa. Retrieved May 3, 2015, from http://www.histedbr.fe.unicamp.br/acer_histedbr/seminario/seminario9/PDFs/8.19.pdf.
  5. Bruns, B., Evans, D., & Luque, J. (2012). Achieving World-Class Education in Brazil. Washington, DC: World Bank.Google Scholar
  6. Clovis de Azevedo, J. (2007). Reconversão Cultural da Escola: Mercoescola e Escola Cidadã. Porto Alegre: Suline.Google Scholar
  7. Coraggio, J. L., & Torres, R. M. (1997). La Educación Según el Banco Mundial: un análisis de sus propuestos y métodos. Buenos Aires: Minõ e Dàvila Editores.Google Scholar
  8. Crespo, M., Soares, J. F., & Mello e Souza, A. (2000). The Brazilian National Education System of Basic Education: Context, Process and Impact. Studies in Educational Evaluation, 26, 105–125.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Dockhorn, G. V. (2002). Quando a Ordem é Segurança e o Progresso é Desenvolvimento (1964–1974). Porto Alegre: EDIPUCRS.Google Scholar
  10. Faria Filho, L. M., & Vidal, D. G. (2007). History of Urban Education in Brazil: Time and Space in Primary Schools. In W. T. Pink & G. W. Noblit (Eds.), International Handbook of Urban Education (pp. 581–600). Dordrecht: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Garcia, W. E. (1995). Inovação Educacional no Brasil: Problemas e Perspectivas. Campinas: Autores Associados.Google Scholar
  12. Ghiraldelli, P. (2000). História da Educação. São Paulo: Cortes.Google Scholar
  13. Horkheimer, M., & Adorno, T. W. (2002). Dialectic of Enlightenment. Stanford: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  14. IBGE. (2001). Pesquisa Nacional Por Amostra de Domicílios – PNAD 2001. Retrieved August 26, 2016, from http://www.ibge.gov.br/home/estatistica/populacao/trabalhoerendimento/pnad2001/coment2001.shtm.
  15. Kinzo, M. D’Alva, & Dunkerley, J. (2003). Brazil Since 1985: Economy, Polity and Society. London: University of London.Google Scholar
  16. Koppensteiner, M. F. (2011). Automatic Grade Promotion and Student Performance: Evidence from Brazil. Retrieved July 19, 2015, from http://www.le.ac.uk/ec/research/RePEc/lec/leecon/dp11-52.pdf.
  17. Leodoro, M. P. (2001). Educação Científica e Cultura Material: os artefatos lúdicos. São Paulo: University of São Paulo.Google Scholar
  18. Luna, F. V., & Klein, H. S. (2006). Brazil Since 1980. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Marcílio, M. L. (2001). O Atraso Histórico na Educação. Braudel Papers, 30, 3–11.Google Scholar
  20. Marcílio, M. L. (2005). História da Escola em São Paulo e no Brasil. Revista FAEEBA, 14(24), 103–112.Google Scholar
  21. Ministério da Educação. (1996). LEI No. 9.394 de 20 de dezembro de 1996. Retrieved March 2, 2019, from http://portal.mec.gov.br/seesp/arquivos/pdf/lei9394_ldbn1.pdf.
  22. Pellanda, N. C. (1986). Ideologia e educação e Repressão no Brasil Pós 64. Porto Alegre: Mercado Aberto.Google Scholar
  23. Piletti, N. (1990). História da Educação no Brasil. São Paulo: Ática.Google Scholar
  24. Piletti, N. (1999). Estrutura e Funcionamento do Ensino Fundamental. São Paulo: Ática.Google Scholar
  25. Postman, N. (1992). Technopoly: The Surrender of Culture to Technology. New York: Vintage Books.Google Scholar
  26. Rauber, P. A. (2008). Metodologia do Ensino Superior. Dourados: Unigran.Google Scholar
  27. Romanelli, O. O. (1978). História da Educação no Brasil. Petrópolis: Vozes.Google Scholar
  28. Rosa, J. M. (2006). As vozes de um mesmo tempo: a educação física institucionalizada no período da Ditadura Militar em Cacequi. Santa Maria: UFSM.Google Scholar
  29. Souza, R. F. (1998). Templos de Civilização: a implantação da escola primária graduada no estado de São Paulo, 1890–1910. São Paulo: Editora UNESP.Google Scholar
  30. Veiga, I. P. (1989). Repensando a Didática. Campinas: Papirus.Google Scholar
  31. World Bank. (2003). Brazil – Equitable, Competitive, Sustainable: Contributions for Debate. Washington, DC: World Bank.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. World Bank. (2004). Inequality and Economic Development in Brazil. Washington, DC: World Bank.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Beth M. Titchiner
    • 1
  1. 1.NorwichUK

Personalised recommendations