Survey and Questionnaire Data

  • J. Christopher Westland
Part of the Studies in Systems, Decision and Control book series (SSDC, volume 22)


In terms of sheer quantity, survey research is arguably the most common application of structural equation models. Modern approaches to survey research were, to a major extent, developed by Rensis Likert, who popularized the Likert scale through its use at University of Michigan’s Institute for Social Research. Since Likert’s death in the 1980s, survey methods have changed little, despite an explosion of software, methods, and data sources for doing survey work. This chapter takes a critical look at current best-practices in survey research. It describes methods that have been used to successfully extend the applications in surveys and to better control truthfulness in responses, including affective methods such as electrodermal response used in polygraph protocols. Finally, it explores the more fundamental question “what is a latent construct?”


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Information & Decision SystemsUniversity of Illinois at ChicagoChicagoUSA

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