Consequentialism (C) is probably the most discussed of all philosophical moral theories. There are two main reasons for this. On the one hand, its core idea—that you should maximize the good and minimize the bad—has a very strong intuitive appeal. For, as Samuel Scheffler formulates it:On the other hand, some of the implications of C conflict with CSM and thus with some of our deeply held moral convictions. (Consider, for example, the doctor’s choice, introduced in Sect. 1.1.) Small wonder, then, that deontologists are readily provoked by such an alluring and morally dangerous rival and try their best to reduce its appeal.