Towards a Realistic Design of Hybrid Micro-grid Systems Based on Double Auction Markets

  • Imane WorighiEmail author
  • Abdelilah Maach
  • Joeri Van Mierlo
  • Omar Hegazy
Conference paper
Part of the Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing book series (AISC, volume 912)


Renewable Energy Sources (RESs) are playing an important role in reducing carbon emissions of conventional fossil fuel, greenhouse gases and other pollutants. Moreover, they have a potential benefit of reducing energy cost and providing power to meet the energy demand. Nevertheless, grid stability is criticized via intermittent and non-controllable behavior of RESs. In this regards, coupling power generation units such as solar and wind with Energy Storage Systems (ESSs) is the most likely solution to pave the way for the outstanding transition from conventional power system to smart grid infrastructure. Nonetheless, this infrastructure requires models and controls for the implementation of next-generation grid architecture. Therefore, a virtualization of the above infrastructure could be overriding and cost-effective for implementation phase. In that regard, the present research proposes a hybrid micro-grid model including wind and solar energy, loads, a double auction market and ESSs. The proposed model is tested and validated using virtualization of the above proposed grid structure. The implementation of the virtualized system enhances the role of ESSs leading the power system to be stable. ESSs allow accumulating the surplus energy for later use in those periods in which wind and solar contribute to overproduction. Furthermore, it enables delivering back the extra energy in peak periods. Simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed model and highlight the role of ESSs in stabilization. As a result, the proposed model can be used to test other scenarios such as implementation of controls and smart appliances of the new and improved power system augmented with RESs.


Renewable Energy Sources Smart grid Energy demand Virtualization Energy Storage Systems Peak periods 


Photovoltaic system

\( {\text{I}}_{\text{PV}} \)

photovoltaic panel current

\( {\text{V}}_{\text{PV}} \)

photovoltaic panel voltage

\( {\text{I}}_{\text{sc}} \)

photovoltaic cell short-circuit current

\( {\text{I}}_{\text{o}} \)

saturation current

\( {\text{R}}_{\text{S}} \)

series cell resistance

\( {\text{R}}_{\text{p}} \)

parallel cell resistance

\( {\text{V}}_{\text{T}} \)

thermal voltage

\( {N}_{cell} \)

number of cells for a single panel

Wind turbine

\( {\text{v}}_{\text{WT}} \)

wind speed at wind turbine hub height

\( {\text{v}}_{\text{AN}} \)

wind speed recorded from anemometer

\( {\text{z}}_{\text{WT}} \)

height of the turbine hub

\( {\text{z}}_{\text{AN}} \)

height of the anemometer


\( {\text{P}}_{\text{B}} \)

total output power of batteries

\( {\text{P}}_{\text{WT}} \)

total output power of wind

\( {\text{P}}_{\text{PV}} \)

total output power of PV system

\( {\text{P}}_{\text{L}} \)

total consumption loads



We acknowledge Flanders Make for the support to our team.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Imane Worighi
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    Email author
  • Abdelilah Maach
    • 1
  • Joeri Van Mierlo
    • 2
    • 3
  • Omar Hegazy
    • 2
    • 3
  1. 1.Mohammadia School of EngineersMohammed V University in RabatRabatMorocco
  2. 2.ETEC Department and MOBI Research GroupVrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB)BrusselsBelgium
  3. 3.Flanders MakeHeverleeBelgium

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