Advertisement

The Legal Framework on Diversity and Equality

  • Stefanos NachmiasEmail author
  • Maranda Ridgway
  • Valerie Caven
Chapter
  • 379 Downloads
Part of the Palgrave Explorations in Workplace Stigma book series (PAEWS)

Abstract

This chapter offers a critical evaluation of the British legal framework and how the law has been used to address discrimination in the workplace. The equality and diversity legal framework policies go beyond the employment and prohibit any form of discrimination in the workplace. The chapter provides a critical analysis of the current legal framework as we attempt to assess how organisations have adopted the legal obligations in an attempt to establish fair working practices. Analysis shows that there is a need to advance further our knowledge on the role of hard and soft laws and assess whether the current legal framework might create sources of ‘hidden’ inequality in the workplace.

Keywords

Diversity Equality Legal framework Organisational action 

References

  1. Acas. 2018. The equality act. http://www.acas.org.uk/index.aspx?articleid=3017. Accessed 12 Mar 2018.
  2. Ackrill, R., V. Caven, and J. Alaktif. 2017. ‘Black boxes’ and ‘fracture points’: The regulation of gender equality in the UK and French construction industries. International Journal of Human Resource Management 28: 3027–3046.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Armstrong, C., P.C. Flood, J.P. Guthrie, W. Liu, S. MacCurtain, and T. Mkamwa. 2010. The impact of diversity and equality management on firm performance: Beyond high performance work systems. Human Resource Management 49: 977–998.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bar Council. 2013. Equality and diversity guides subconscious bias. https://www.barcouncil.org.uk/media/260986/subconscious_or_unconscious_bias_e_d_guidance_november_2013.pdf. Accessed 31 Jan 2019.
  5. Baratta, A. 2017. Accent and linguistic prejudice within British teacher training. Journal of Language, Identity & Education 16: 416–423.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Barth, I., and A. Wagner. 2017. Physical appearance as invisible discrimination. In Management and diversity. International perspectives on equality, diversity and inclusion, ed. C. Jean-François and M.F. Özbligin, 127–146. Emerald Publishing.Google Scholar
  7. BBC. 2018. ‘It’s Dr, not Ms,’ Insists historian. https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-44496876. Accessed 15 June 2018.
  8. Caven, V., and S. Nachmias. 2018. Hidden inequalities in the workplace: A guide to the current challenges, issues and business solutions. London: Palgrave.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Cennamo, L., and D. Gardner. 2008. Generational differences in work values, outcomes and person-organisation values fit. Journal of Managerial Psychology 23: 891–906.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. CIPD. 2012. Managing diversity: Linking theory and practice to business performance. London: Charter Institute of Personnel and Development.Google Scholar
  11. ———. 2016. Why are there so few women at the top? https://www.cipd.co.uk/Images/why-are-there-so-many-women-at-the-top_2016-april_tcm18-14006.pdf. Accessed 12 Mar 2018.
  12. ———. 2017. Employment regulation in the UK: Burden or benefits. https://www.cipd.co.uk/Images/employment-regulation-in-the-UK_2017-burden-or-benefit_tcm18-21622.pdf. Accessed 12 Mar 2018.
  13. Crandall, C.S., and A. Eshleman. 2003. A justification-suppression model of the expression and experience of prejudice. Psychological Bulletin 129: 414–446.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Ehrke, F., A. Berthold, and M.C. Steffens. 2014. How diversity training can change attitudes: Increasing perceived complexity of superordinate groups to improve intergroup relations. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 53: 193–206.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Financial Times. 2018. Three out of four UK companies pay men more than women on average. https://www.ft.com/content/896928e4-3897-11e8-8b98-2f31af407cc8. Accessed 31 Jan 2019.
  16. Foster, C., and L. Harris. 2005. Easy to say, difficult to do: Diversity management in retail. Human Resource Management Journal 15: 4–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Ghosh, K. 2016. Creative leadership for workplace innovation: An applied SAP-LAP framework. Development and Learning in Organizations. An International Journal 30: 10–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Gluszek, A., and J. Dovidio. 2010. The way they speak: A social psychological perspective on the stigma of nonnative accents in communication. Personality and Social Psychology Review 14: 214–237.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Goettler, A., A. Grosse, and D. Sonntag. 2017. Productivity loss due to overweight and obesity: A systematic review of indirect costs. BMJ Open 7: e014632.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Greene, A., and G. Kirton. 2011. Diversity management meets downsizing: The case of a government department. Employee Relations 33: 22–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Groeneveld, S., and S. Verbeek. 2012. Diversity policies in public and private sector organizations an empirical comparison of incidence and effectiveness. Review of Public Personnel Administration 32: 353–381.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Jones, K.P., C.I. Peddie, V.L. Gilrane, E.B. King, and A. Gray. 2016. Not so subtle: A meta-analysis of the correlates of subtle and overt discrimination. Journal of Management 42: 1588–1613.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Kirton, G., and A. Greene. 2010. The dynamics of managing diversity: A critical approach. Oxford: Elsevier Butterworth-Heinemann.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Klarsfeld, A., E. Ng, and A. Tatli. 2012. Social regulation and diversity management: A comparative study of France, Canada and the UK. European Journal of Industrial Relations 18: 309–327.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Kochan, T., K. Bezrukova, R. Ely, S. Jackson, A. Joshi, K. Jehn, J. Leonard, D. Levinve, and D. Thomas. 2003. The effects of diversity on business performance: Report of the diversity research network. Human Resource Management 42: 3–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Kumra, S., and S. Manfredi. 2012. Managing equality and diversity theory and practice. London: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  27. Loukopoulou, K. 2017. Snobbery against regional accents is hurting university teaching. https://www.timeshighereducation.com/opinion/snobbery-against-regional-accents-hurting-university-teaching. Accessed 12 Mar 2018.
  28. Mavin, S., and G. Girling. 2000. What is managing diversity and why does it matter? Human Resource Development International 3: 419–433.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Meadows, A. 2010. Discrimination against fat people is so endemic, most of us don’t even realise it’s happening. https://theconversation.com/discrimination-against-fat-people-is-so-endemic-most-of-us-dont-even-realise-its-happening-94862. Accessed 12 Mar 2018.
  30. Monks, K. 2007. The business impact of equality and diversity: The international evidence. Dublin: Employment Authority & the National Centre for Partnership and Performance.Google Scholar
  31. Nickson, D., A.R.D. Timming, and D.I. Perrett. 2016. Subtle increases in BMI within a healthy weight range still reduce women employment chances in the service sector. PLoS One 11: e0159659.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. O’Brien, K.S., J. Latner, D. Ebneter, and J. Hunter. 2013. Obesity discrimination: The role of physical appearance, personal ideology, and anti-fat prejudice. International Journal of Obesity 37: 455–460.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Parzefall, R.M., and M. Coyle-Shapiro. 2011. Making sense of psychological contract breach. Journal of Managerial Psychology 26: 12–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. People Management. 2018. Government opens full women-at-work sexual harassment probe after urgent calls for action. https://www.peoplemanagement.co.uk/news/articles/government-women-sexual-harassment-probe. Accessed 12 Mar 2018.
  35. Perry, S.P., M.C. Murphy, and J.F. Dovidio. 2015. Modern prejudice: Subtle, but unconscious? The role of bias awareness in whites’ perceptions of personal and others’ biases. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 61: 64–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Puhl, R.M., and C.A. Heuer. 2010. Obesity stigma: Important considerations for public health. American Journal of Public Health 100: 1019–1028.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Rakić, T., M.C. Steffens, and A. Mummendey. 2011. When it matters how you pronounce it: The influence of regional accents on job interview outcome. British Journal of Psychology 102: 868–883.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Schulte, P.A., G.R. Wagner, and A. Ostry. 2007. Work, obesity, and occupational safety and health. American Journal of Public Health 97: 428–436.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Shaffer, G., and M. Pollack. 2011. Hard versus soft law in international security. Boston College Law Review 52: 1147–1241.Google Scholar
  40. Syed, J., and M. Özbilgin. 2009. A relational framework for international transfer of diversity management practices. International Journal of Human Resource Management 20: 2435–2453.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Teachman, B.A., K.D. Gapinski, K.D. Brownell, M. Rawlins, and S. Jeyaram. 2003. Demonstrations of implicit anti-fat bias: The impact of providing causal information and evoking empathy. Health Psychology 22: 68–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Tomlinson, F., and C. Schwabenland. 2010. Reconciling competing discourses of diversity? The UK non-profit sector between social justice and the business case. Organisation 17: 101–121.Google Scholar
  43. Van Laer, K., and M. Janssens. 2011. Ethnic minority professionals’ experiences with subtle discrimination in the workplace. Human Relations 64: 1203–1227.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Yang, S.M., and M.E. Guy. 2006. GenXers versus boomers: Work motivators and management implications. Public Performance & Management Review 29: 267–284.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Yarborough, Ch. 2018. Obesity in the workplace: Impact, outcomes and recommendations. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine 60: 97–107.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Stefanos Nachmias
    • 1
    Email author
  • Maranda Ridgway
    • 2
  • Valerie Caven
    • 1
  1. 1.Nottingham Business SchoolNottingham Trent UniversityNottinghamUK
  2. 2.Department of Human Resource Management, Nottingham Business SchoolNottingham Trent UniversityNottinghamUK

Personalised recommendations