Improved High Capacity Spread Spectrum-Based Audio Watermarking by Hadamard Matrices

  • Yiming XueEmail author
  • Kai Mu
  • Yan Li
  • Juan Wen
  • Ping Zhong
  • Shaozhang Niu
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 11378)


Traditional spread spectrum-based audio watermarking methods usually use randomly generated pseudonoise sequences for watermark embedding and extraction. In this paper, we use Hadamard sequences, which are rows of Hadamard matrices, to embed and extract watermarks instead of pseudonoise sequences. By exploiting the orthogonality of Hadamard sequences and a technique of sign change, we propose a new spread spectrum-based audio watermarking method. Experimental results show that, compared to the newly high embedding capacity spread spectrum-based audio watermarking method, our method achieves a better perceptual quality and a higher embedding capacity while maintaining almost equal strong robustness. We also provide a theoretical analysis of the security of our method.


Spread spectrum Audio watermarking Hadamard sequences Imperceptibility 



This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. U1536121, 61872368).


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yiming Xue
    • 1
    Email author
  • Kai Mu
    • 1
  • Yan Li
    • 2
  • Juan Wen
    • 1
  • Ping Zhong
    • 2
  • Shaozhang Niu
    • 3
  1. 1.College of Information and Electrical EngineeringChina Agricultural UniversityBeijingChina
  2. 2.College of ScienceChina Agricultural UniversityBeijingChina
  3. 3.School of Computer ScienceBeijing University of Posts and TelecommunicationBeijingChina

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