Rendering Realistic Subject-Dependent Expression Images by Learning 3DMM Deformation Coefficients

  • Claudio FerrariEmail author
  • Stefano Berretti
  • Pietro Pala
  • Alberto Del Bimbo
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 11130)


Automatic analysis of facial expressions is now attracting an increasing interest, thanks to the many potential applications it can enable. However, collecting images with labeled expression for large sets of images or videos is a quite complicated operation that, in most of the cases, requires substantial human intervention. In this paper, we propose a solution that, starting from a neutral image of a subject, is capable of producing a realistic expressive face image of the same subject. This is possible thanks to the use of a particular 3D morphable model (3DMM) that can effectively and efficiently fit to 2D images, and then deform itself under the action of deformation parameters learned expression-by-expression in a subject-independent manner. Ultimately, the application of such deformation parameters to the neutral model of a subject allows the rendering of realistic expressive images of the subject. Experiments demonstrate that such deformation parameters can be learned from a small set of training data using simple statistical tools; despite this simplicity, very realistic subject-dependent expression renderings can be obtained. Furthermore, robustness to cross dataset tests is also evidenced.


3D morphable model Deformation components learning Facial expression synthesis 



The authors would like to thank Gabriele Barlacchi, Francesco Lombardi, Alessandro Sestini, and Alessandro Soci for developing and experimenting part of the code used in this work.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Claudio Ferrari
    • 1
    Email author
  • Stefano Berretti
    • 1
  • Pietro Pala
    • 1
  • Alberto Del Bimbo
    • 1
  1. 1.Media Integration and Communication CenterUniversity of FlorenceFlorenceItaly

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