Cutaneous Stigmata and the Occult Spinal Dysraphisms

  • Jaspreet Johal
  • Charlotte Wilson
  • R. Shane Tubbs
  • W. Jerry OakesEmail author


Cutaneous birthmarks are usually innocuous. However, when over the lumbosacral spine, especially, in the midline, the likelihood of an associated underlying spinal dysraphism rises. Herein, we discuss the various cutaneous markers and their associated occult spinal dysraphisms.


Skin Congenital Malformation Clinical Stigmata 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jaspreet Johal
    • 1
  • Charlotte Wilson
    • 2
  • R. Shane Tubbs
    • 3
  • W. Jerry Oakes
    • 4
    Email author
  1. 1.St. George’s UniversitySt. GeorgeGrenada
  2. 2.Department of Cell and Developmental BiologyUniversity of Colorado Anschutz Medical CampusDenverUSA
  3. 3.Seattle Science FoundationSeattleUSA
  4. 4.Division of NeurosurgeryChildren’s of AlabamaBirminghamUSA

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