Oral Signs of Connective Tissue Disease

  • Kenisha R. Heath
  • Nasim FazelEmail author


In this chapter, we aim to discuss the epidemiology, pathogenesis, differential diagnosis, and treatment of oral manifestations encountered in the autoimmune diseases of Sjögren’s syndrome (SS), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), systemic sclerosis (SSc), mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD), and dermatomyositis (DM). Systemic autoimmune conditions are estimated to affect 5%–8% of Americans. Oral manifestations are encountered with high frequency and are often the first clinical signs or symptoms of the disease.


Sjögren’s syndrome Systemic lupus erythematosus Systemic sclerosis Mixed connective tissue disease Dermatomyositis 


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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Air Force Institute of TechnologyWright-Patterson AFBUSA
  2. 2.Department of DermatologyUniversity of California, DavisSacramentoUSA

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