The Construction of (Racialised) Author and Reader Identities



Anglo-American book publishing reflects the structural inequalities and uneven distribution of power within society: this social—‘racial’ and ethnic—stratification can impact various groups of people. The absence of diverse characters in children’s and young adult literature can influence how readers form their identity, and/or shape their perceptions of others, in relation to the world around them. Ramdarshan Bold explores how the lack of representative characters and authors of colour in children’s and YA books impacts the reader and author identities. Drawing upon original data, from interviews with a sample of British YA authors of colour, Ramdarshan Bold will explore how YA authors of colour are creating counter-narratives that challenge dominant perspectives and stereotypes. There is currently a lack of books that reflect the changing nature of Britain and challenge the notion of a fixed/singular British identity. Through interviews, this programme will investigate the childhood/adolescent reading practices of UKYA authors with a particular focus on the lack of diverse books, and whether this influenced their own writing and authorial identity. UKYA authors of colour challenge the perception of what it means to be British, and what British literature is. Canonical authors (commonly white/middle class/male) monopolise the definition of Britishness in the literature. Groskop described this type of Britishness as a ‘conservative cultural phenomena, which painfully reinforce outdated national stereotypes’. Many UKYA authors of colour are constructing their own notions of Britishness, to counter the unconscious manifestation of racism inherent in traditional constructions and to broaden the understanding of what it is to be British in the twenty-first century.


Authorship Identity Authors Authors of colour Identity Britishness Nostalgia Racism Race UKYA Counter-narratives 

Works Cited

  1. Abdel-Magied, Y. (2016, September 10). As Lionel Shriver Made Light of Identity, I Had No Choice but to Walk Out on Her. The Guardian [Online]. Available at Accessed 23 July 2018.
  2. ACLS. (2018). Authors’ Earnings 2018. ALCS [Online]. Available at Accessed 23 July 2018.
  3. Agosto, D. (2007). Building a Multicultural School Library: Issues and Challenges. Teacher Librarian, 34(3), 27–31.Google Scholar
  4. Anderson, B. (1983). Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism. London: Verso.Google Scholar
  5. Anderson, E. (2014). The White Space. Sociology of Race and Ethnicity, 1(1), 10–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Anderson, E. (2018, June 9). This Is What It Feels Like to Be Black in White Spaces. The Guardian [Online]. Available at Accessed 23 July 2018.
  7. Alter, A. (2017, December 24). In an Era of Online Outrage, Do Sensitivity Readers Result in Better Books, or Censorship? The New York Times [Online]. Available at Accessed 23 March 2018.
  8. Alvermann, D. E. (2001). Reading Adolescents’ Reading Identities: Looking Back to See Ahead. Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 44(8), 676.Google Scholar
  9. Andrews, K. (2015, December 8). Racism Is Still Alive and Well, 50 Years After the UK’s Race Relations Act. The Guardian [Online]. Available at Accessed 23 March 2018.
  10. Baker, B. (1997). Anthropology and Teacher Preparation: Some Possibilities and Precautions. Queensland Journal of Educational Research, 15(2), 41–58.Google Scholar
  11. Ballash, K. M. (1994). Remedial High School Readers Can Recover, Too! Journal of Reading, 37(8), 686–687.Google Scholar
  12. Barthes, R. (1977). Image, Music, Text. London: Fontana.Google Scholar
  13. Baxley, T. P., & Boston, G. H. (2010). Classroom Inequity and the Literacy Experiences of Black Adolescent Girls. In J. Zajda (Ed.), Globalization, Education and Social Justice (pp. 145–159). Melbourne, Australia: Australian Catholic University.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Baxley, T., & Boston, G. H. (2014). (In)Visible Presence: Feminist Counter-Narratives of Young Adult Literature by Women of Color. Rotterdam: Sense Publishers.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. BBC. (2018, June 3). The English Question: Young Are Less Proud to Be English. BBC [Online]. Available at Accessed 23 July 2018.
  16. Bhabha, H. (1996). Cultures In-Between. In S. Hall & P. DuGay (eds.) Questions of Cultural Identity (pp. 53–61). London: Sage.Google Scholar
  17. Bishop, R. S. (1982). Shadow and Substance: Afro-American Experience in Contemporary Children’s Fiction. Urbana, IL: National Council of Teachers of English.Google Scholar
  18. Bishop, R. S. (1990). Mirrors, Windows, and Sliding Glass Doors. Perspectives, 6(3), ix–xi.Google Scholar
  19. Bishop, R. S. (1992). Children’s Books in a Multicultural World: A View from the USA. In E. Evans (Ed.), Reading Against Racism (pp. 19–38). Philadelphia, PA: Open University Press.Google Scholar
  20. Bishop, R. S. (2007). Free Within Ourselves: The Development of African American Children’s Literature. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.Google Scholar
  21. Bishop, R. S. (2012). Reflections on the Development of African American Children’s Literature. Children’s Literature Assembly, 38(2), 5–13.Google Scholar
  22. Bostick, D. (2016, July 12). How Colorblindness Is Actually Racist. The Huffington Post [Online]. Available at Accessed 23 July 2018.
  23. Bourdieu, P. (1997). The Forms of Capital. In A. H. Halsey, H. Lauder, P. Brown, & A. S. Wells (Eds.), Education, Culture, Economy and Society (pp. 46–58). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  24. Brooks, W. (2006). Reading Representations of Themselves: Urban Youth Use Culture and African American Textual Features to Develop Literary Understandings. Reading Research Quarterly, 41(3), 372–392.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Brooks, W., & Browne, S. (2012). Towards a Culturally Situated Reader Response Theory. Children’s Literature in Education, 43(1), 74–85. Scholar
  26. Brook, O., O’Brien, D., & Taylor, M. (2018). Panic! It’s an Arts Emergency. Creative London. Available at Accessed 23 July 2018.
  27. Brouillette, S. (2007). Postcolonial Writers in the Global Literary Marketplace. New York, NY: Palgrave.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Busse, K. (2013). The Return of the Author: Ethos and Identity Politics. In J. Gray & D. Johnson (Eds.), A Companion to Media Authorship (pp. 48–68). Chichester: Wiley.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Cai, M. (2002). Multicultural Literature for Children and Young Adults: Reflections on Critical Issues. Westport, CT: Greenwood.Google Scholar
  30. Cain, S. (2015, November 30). Marlon James: ‘Writers of Colour Pander to the White Woman’. The Guardian [Online]. Available at Accessed 23 March 2018.
  31. Camacho, H. (2011). Where GLBT Literature Is Going and Why It Matters. VOYA, 10(4), 138–139.Google Scholar
  32. Campanella, E. (2018, July 13). The Global Nostalgia Epidemic. Project Syndicate [Online]. Available at Accessed 23 July 2018.
  33. Campbell, A. (2000). Cultural Identity as a Social Construct. Intercultural Education, 11(1), 31–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Carbado, D. W., & Gulati, M. (2000). Working Identity. Cornell Law Review, 85, 1259–1308.Google Scholar
  35. Carrington, B., & Short, G. (1998). Adolescent Discourse on National Identity–Voices of Care and Justice? Educational Studies, 24(2), 133–152.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Cart, M. (2004). What a Wonderful World: Notes on the Evolution of GLBTQ Literature for Young Adults. ALAN Review, 31(2), 46–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Cart, M. (2008). The Value of Young Adult Literature. Young Adult Library Services Association. Available at Accessed 23 July 2018.
  38. Cart, M. (2009). The Renaissance Continues: Young Adult Literature for the 21st Century. Catholic Library World, 79(4), 279.Google Scholar
  39. Cart, M. (2016). Young Adult Literature: From Romance to Realism (3rd ed.). Chicago: American Library Association.Google Scholar
  40. Cart, M., & Jenkins, C. A. (2006). The Heart Has Its Reasons: Young Adult Literature with Gay/Lesbian/Queer Content, 1969–2004. Lanham, MD: Scarecrow.Google Scholar
  41. Chetty, D. (2016). You Can’t Say That! Stories Have to Be About White People. In N. Shukla (Ed.), The Good Immigrant. London: Unbound.Google Scholar
  42. CLPE. (2018). Reflecting Realities—A Survey of Ethnic Representation Within UK Children’s Literature 2017. Accessed 17 July 2018.
  43. Cobb, J. (2017, September 24). From Louis Armstrong to the N.F.L.: Ungrateful as the New Uppity. The New Yorker [Online]. Available at Accessed 23 July 2018.
  44. Cohen, J. (2001). Defining Identification: A Theoretical Look at the Identification of Audiences with Media Characters. Mass Communication & Society, 4(3), 245–264.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Coleman, J. C., & Hendry, L. B. (1999). The Nature of Adolescence (3rd ed.). London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  46. Conor, B., Gill, R., & Taylor, S. (2015). Gender and Creative Labour. London: Wiley-Blackwell.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Craig, A. (2004, January 31). Black Is the New White. The Times [Online]. Available at Accessed 23 July 2018.
  48. DiAngelo, R. (2018). White Fragility: Why It’s So Hard for White People to Talk About Racism. Boston, MA: Beacon Press.Google Scholar
  49. Diaz, J. (2014, April 30). MFA vs. POC. The New Yorker [Online]. Available at Accessed 23 March 2018.
  50. Deahl, R. (2015, September 11). New Guild Survey Reveals Majority of Authors Earn Below Poverty Line. Publishers Weekly [Online]. Available at Accessed 23 March 2018.
  51. Doll, J. (2012, April 26). The Ongoing Problem of Race in Y.A. The Atlantic [Online]. Available at Accessed 23 March 2018.
  52. Du Bois, W. E. B. (1996). The Souls of Black Folk. London and New York: Penguin Books.Google Scholar
  53. Dutro, E. (2009). Children Writing “Hard Times”: Lived Experiences of Poverty and the Class-Privileged Assumptions of a Mandated Curriculum. Language Arts, 87(2), 89–98.Google Scholar
  54. Dwyer, C., & Crang, P. (2002). Fashioning Ethnicities: The Commercial Spaces of Multiculture. Ethnicities, 2(3), 410–430.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Eddo-Lodge, R. (2017). Why I’m No Longer Talking to White People About Race. London: Bloomsbury.Google Scholar
  56. El-Enany, N. (2018). The Next British Empire. Progressive Review, 25(1), 30–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Elliot, L. (2017, July 6). Family of Four Needs ‘At Least’ £40,800 a Year, Says Thinktank. The Guardian [Online]. Available at Accessed 23 July 2018.
  58. Epstein, B. J. (2013). Are the Kids All Right? Representations of LGBTQ Characters in Children’s and Young Adult Literature. Bristol: HammerOn Press.Google Scholar
  59. Fang, Z., Fu, D., & Lamme, L. (2003). The Trivialization and Misuse of Multicultural Literature: Issues of Representation and Communication. In D. Fox & K. G. Short (Eds.), Stories Matter: The Complexity of Cultural Authenticity in Children’s Literature (pp. 284–303). Urbana, IL: National Council of Teachers of English.Google Scholar
  60. Findon, J. (2002). Transgressing Gender Norms in Canadian Young Adult Fiction. Canadian Children’s Literature/Littérature canadienne pour la jeunesse, 108, 6–7.Google Scholar
  61. Fish, S. (1982). Is There a Text in This Class? The Authority of Interpretive Communities. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Fiske, J. (1989). Reading the Popular. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  63. Flanagan, V. (2004). Me, Myself, and Him—The Changing Face of Female Cross-Dressing in Contemporary Children’s Literature. In T. van der Walt (Ed.), Change and Renewal in Children’s Literature (pp. 59-66). Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers.Google Scholar
  64. Flood, A. (2014, August 26). Malorie Blackman Faces Racist Abuse After Call to Diversify Children’s Books. The Guardian [Online]. Available on Accessed 23 July 2018.
  65. Flood, A. (2016, August 16). Publisher Delays YA Novel Amid Row Over Invented Black “Street Dialect”. The Guardian [Online]. Available at Accessed 23 March 2018.
  66. Flood, A. (2017, September 6). UK Publishing Industry Remains 90% White, Survey Finds. The Guardian [Online]. Available at Accessed 23 March 2018.
  67. Flood, A. (2018, February 7). Ethnic Diversity in UK Children’s Books to Be Examined. The Guardian [Online]. Available at Accessed 23 March 2018.
  68. Freedman, L., & Johnson, H. (2001). Who’s Protecting Whom? I Hadn’t Meant to Tell You This, a Case in Point in Confronting Self-Censorship in the Choice of Young Adult Literature. Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 4, 356–369.Google Scholar
  69. Freire, P. (2000). Pedagogy of the Oppressed. New York, NY: Continuum.Google Scholar
  70. Friedman, S., O’Brien, D., & Laurison, D. (2016). ‘Like Skydiving Without a Parachute’: How Class Origin Shapes Occupational Trajectories in British Acting. Sociology, 51(5), 992–1010.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Foucault, M. (1980). What Is an Author? In V. Harari (Ed.), Textual Strategies: Perspectives in Post-structuralist Criticism (pp. 141–160). London: Methuan.Google Scholar
  72. Gates, P. S., & Mark, D. L. (2006). Cultural Journeys: Multicultural Literature for Children and Young Adults. Lanham, MD: The Scarcrow Press.Google Scholar
  73. Gee, J. P. (2005). An Introduction to Discourse Analysis (2nd ed.). New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  74. Gibson, J., Johnson, P., & Gaetano, D. (2015). The Business of Being an Author: A Survey of Author’s Earnings and Contracts (Project Report). London: Queen Mary University of London. Available at Accessed 23 July 2018.
  75. Gilroy, P. (1993). ‘We Got to Get Over Before We Go Under’: Fragments for a History of Black Vernacular Neoliberalism. New Formations, 80(1), 23–38.Google Scholar
  76. Gilroy, P. (2004). After Empire: Melancholia or Convivial Culture. London and New York: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Giroux, H. (2005). Border Crossing: Cultural Workers and the Politics of Education (2nd ed.). New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  78. Glenn, W. J. (2012). Developing Understandings of Race: Preservice Teachers’ Counter-Narrative (Re)Constructions of People of Color in Young Adult Literature. English Education, 44(4), 326–353.Google Scholar
  79. Glover, S. (2018, April 6). Couldn’t Afua Hirsch Summon a Smidgen of Gratitude? The Daily Mail [Online]. Available at Accessed 23 July 2018.
  80. Grant, S. (2015, December 31). Black Writers Courageously Staring Down the White Gaze—This Is Why We All Must Read Them. The Guardian [Online]. Available at Accessed 23 July 2018.
  81. Grauerholz, E., & Pescosolido, B. A. (1989). Gender Representation in Children’s Literature: 1900–1984. Gender and Society, 3(1), 113–125.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Gray, J. (2013). When Is the Author? In J. Gray & D. Johnson (Eds.), A Companion to Media Authorship. Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell.Google Scholar
  83. Groskop, V. (2014, September 17). Downton Abbey’s Class Nostalgia Is Another Toxic British Export. The Guardian [Online]. Available at Accessed 23 July 2018.
  84. Hall, S. (1992). The Question of Cultural Identity. In S. Hall, D. Held, & T. McGrew (Eds.), Modernity and Its Futures (p. 277). Cambridge: Polity.Google Scholar
  85. Hall, S. (2000). Who Needs “Identity”? In P. du Gay, J. Evans, & P. Redman (Eds.), Identity: A Reader (pp. 15–20). IDE: Sage.Google Scholar
  86. Hall, S. (2005). Notes on Deconstructing ‘the Popular’. In R. Guins & O. Z. Cruz (Eds.), Popular Culture (pp. 64–71). London: Sage.Google Scholar
  87. Havens, T. (2006). Global Television Marketplace. London: British Film Institute.Google Scholar
  88. Hayn, J., & Sherrill, D. (1996). Female Protagonists in Multicultural Young Adult Literature: Sources and Strategies. Alan Review, 24(1), 1–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Hefflin, B., & Barksdale-Ladd, M. (2001). African American Children’s Literature That Helps Students Find Themselves: Selection Guidelines for Grades K-3. The Reading Teacher, 54(8), 810–819.Google Scholar
  90. Heller, N. (2017, October 23). Kirkus Reviews and the Plight of the “Problematic” Book Review. The New Yorker [Online]. Available at Accessed 23 March 2018.
  91. Hesmondhalgh, D., & Baker, S. (2010). Creative Labour. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  92. Hirsch, A. (2018a) Brit(ish): On Race, Identity and Belonging. London: Jonathan Cape.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Hirsch, A. (2018b, February 11). Afua Hirsch: ‘I’m British—Why Should I Be Grateful for That? The Times [Online]. Available at Accessed 23 July 2018.
  94. Hirsch, A. (2018c, January 24). I’ve Had Enough of White People Who Try to Deny My Experience. The Guardian [Online]. Available at Accessed 23 July 2018.
  95. hooks, b. (1991). Narratives of Struggle. In P. Mariani (Ed.), Critical Fictions: The Politics of Imaginative Writing (pp. 53–61). Washington: Bay Press.Google Scholar
  96. hooks, b. (1992). Black Looks: Race and Representation. Boston: South End Press.Google Scholar
  97. Hopper, R. (2005). What Are Teenagers Reading? Adolescent Fiction Reading Habits and Reading Choices. Literacy, 39(3), 113–120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Huggan, G. (2001). The Postcolonial Exotic: Marketing the Margin. New York, NY: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Hughes-Hassell, S., & Cox, E. J. (2010). Inside Board Books: Representations of People of Color. Library Quarterly, 80(3), 211–230.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Jenkins, H. (1992). Textual Poachers: Television Fans and Participatory Culture. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  101. Johnson, C. (2011, December 5). Where Are Britain’s Black Writers? The Guardian [Online]. Available at Accessed 23 March 2018.
  102. Kalfus, K. (2016, September 20). No, Lionel Shriver, the Problem Is Not Cultural Appropriation. The Washington Post [Online]. Available at Accessed 23 July 2018.
  103. Kalra, V., & Hutnyk, J. (1998). Brimful of Agitation, Authenticity and Appropriation: Madonna’s ‘Asian Kool’. Postcolonial Studies, 1(3), 339–355.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Kean, D. (2015). Writing the Future Black and Asian Authors and Publishers in the UK Marketplace. Spread the Word. Available at Accessed 23 March 2018.
  105. Kean, D. (2016, December 27). Has Publishing Really Become More Diverse? The Guardian [Online]. Available at Accessed 23 July 2018.
  106. Kelly, P. (1992). Gender Issues and the Young Adult Novel. In V. Monseau & G. Slavner (Eds.), Reading Their World: The Young Adult Novel in the Classroom (pp. 154–167). New York: Boynton/Cook.Google Scholar
  107. Khomami, N., & Watt, H. (2017, October 26). Cambridge Student Accuses Telegraph of Inciting Hatred in Books Row. The Guardian [Online]. Available at Accessed 23 July 2018.
  108. Kunzru, H., Shamsie, K., Forna, A., Kennedy, A. L., Hensher, P., Cleave, C., et al. (2016, October 1). Whose Life Is It Anyway? Novelists Have Their Say on Cultural Appropriation. The Guardian [Online]. Available at Accessed 23 July 2018.
  109. Landt, S. (2005). Multicultural Literature and Young Adolescents: A Kaleidoscope of Opportunity. Journal of Adolescent and Adult Literacy, 49(8), 690–698.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Landt, S. M. (2006). Multicultural Literature and Young Adolescents: A Kaleidoscope of Opportunity. Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 49(8), 690–697.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Landt, S. (2007). Weaving Multicultural Literature into Middle School Curricula. Middle School Journal, 39(2), 19–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Landt, S. (2011). Integration of Multicultural Literature in Primary Grade Language Arts Curriculum. The Journal of Multiculturalism in Education, 7(1), 1–27.Google Scholar
  113. Latham, D. (2007). The Cultural Work of Magical Realism in Three Young Adult Novels. Children’s Literature in Education, 38, 59–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Lefebvre, B. (2005). From Bad Boy to Dead Boy: Homophobia, Adolescent Problem Fiction, and Male Bodies That Matter. Children’s Literature Association Quarterly, 30(3), 288–313.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Levithan, D. (2004). Supporting Gay Teen Literature. School Library Journal, 50(10), 44–45.Google Scholar
  116. Lindgren, M. V. (Ed.). (1991). The Multicolored Mirror: Cultural Substance in Literature for Children and Young Adults. Fort Atkinson, WI: Highsmith.Google Scholar
  117. Macedo, D. (2006). Literacies of Power: What Americans Are Not Allowed to Know. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.Google Scholar
  118. Madigan, D. (1993). The Politics of Multicultural Literature for Children and Adolescents: Combining Perspectives and Conversations. Language Arts, 70(3), 168–176.Google Scholar
  119. Manzoor, S. (2011, November 4). Too Asian, Not Asian Enough Edited by Kavita Bhanot—Review. The Guardian [Online]. Available at Accessed 23 March 2018.
  120. Mason, E. (2017, February 19). How Authors Including JK Rowling Need to Hire Sensitivity Readers for Touchy Subjects in Their Books. Independent [Online]. Available at Accessed 23 March 2018.
  121. Maya Productions and CAMEo. (2017). The Pocket Guide to Black, Asian and Minority Ethnic Role Models and Leaders in the Performing Arts. Available at Accessed 23 July 2018.
  122. McRobbie, A. (2002). Clubs to Companies. Cultural Studies, 16(4), 516–531.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. McRobbie, A. (2015). Be Creative. Cambridge: Polity Press.Google Scholar
  124. Miller, N. K. (1988). Subject to Change: Reading Feminist Writing. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
  125. Monseau, V. R. (1994). Studying Cormier’s Protagonists: Achieving Power Through Young Adult Literature. The ALAN Review, 22, 31–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Museum Detox. (2018). Museum Detox—A Networking Group for BAME Professionals in Museums and Heritage. Available at Accessed 23 July 2018.
  127. Myers, W. D. (2014, March 16). Where Are the People of Color in Childrens Books? The New York Times [Online]. Available at Accessed 23 March 2018.
  128. NatCen. (2017, September 29). New Report Uncovers Extent of Racial Prejudice in Britain. National Centre for Social Research (NatCen) [Online]. Available at Accessed 23 March 2018.
  129. Nilsen, A., & Donelson, K. (2009). Literature for Today’s Young Adults (8th ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson.Google Scholar
  130. Norland, R. (2016, September 19). Lionel Shriver’s Address on Cultural Appropriation Roils a Writers Festival. The New York Times [Online]. Available at Accessed 23 March 2018.
  131. Oakley, K. (2014). ‘Creativity Is for People–Arts for Posh People’: Popular Culture and the UK New Labour Government. In T. Miller (Ed.), Routledge Companion to Popular Culture (pp. 449–458). London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  132. O’Brien, D., Laurison, D., Miles, A., et al. (2016). Are the Creative Industries Meritocratic? An Analysis of the 2014 British Labour Force Survey. Cultural Trends, 25(2), 116–131.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Older, D. J. (2014, April 18). Diversity Is Not Enough: Race, Power, Publishing. Buzzfeed [Online]. Available at Accessed 23 March 2018.
  134. Olufemi, L. (2017, June 21). Postcolonial Writing Is Not an Afterthought; It Is British Literature. Varsity [Online]. Available at Accessed 23 July 2018.
  135. Olusoga, D. (2016). Black and British: A Forgotten History. London: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  136. Okuniewska, P. (2017, August 8). Social Media Is Blowing up Over Problematic Young Adult Novels. Electric Literature [Online]. Available at
  137. Platell, A. (2018, February 24). Platell’s People: Can’t You Show a Scintilla of Gratitude, Stormzy? The Daily Mail [Online]. Available at Accessed 23 July 2018.
  138. Popova, M. (2016). James Baldwin and Chinua Achebe’s Forgotten Conversation About Beauty, Morality, and the Political Power of Art. Brain Pickings [Online]. Available at Accessed 23 July 2018.
  139. Prose, F. (2016, September 19). The Trouble with Sombreros. The New York Review of Books. Available at Accessed 23 July 2018.
  140. Prose, F. (2017, November 1). The Problem with ‘Problematic’. The New York Review of Books [Online]. Available at Accessed 23 July 2018.
  141. Pugh, T., & Wallace, D. L. (2006). Heteronormative Heroism and Queering the School Story in J.K. Rowling’s Harry Potter Series. Children’s Literature Association Quarterly, 31(3), 260–281.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Quinn, M. (2015, September 21). How Do We Feel About White Authors Writing Black Stories? Bookriot [Online]. Available at Accessed 23 March 2018.
  143. Radway, J. (1984). Reading the Romance: Women, Patriarchy, and Popular Literature. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.Google Scholar
  144. Ramdarshan Bold, M. (2016). The Return of the Social Author: Negotiating Authority and Influence on Wattpad. Convergence: The International Journal of Research into New Media TechnologiesGoogle Scholar
  145. Ramdarshan Bold, M. (2018). The Eight Percent Problem: Authors of Colour in the British Young Adult Market (2006–2016). Publishing Research Quarterly, 34(3), 385–406.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Rawson, C. H. (2011). Are All Lists Created Equal? Diversity in Award-Winning and Bestselling Yound Adult Fiction. Journal of Research on Libraries and Young Adults, 1(3). Available at Accessed 23 March 2018.
  147. Rochman, H. (1993). Against Borders: Promoting Books for a Multicultural World. Chicago, IL: American Library Association.Google Scholar
  148. Rothbauer, P. (2002). Reading Mainstream Possibilities: Canadian Young Adult Fiction with Lesbian and Gay Characters. Canadian Children’s Literature/Littérature canadienne pour la jeunesse, 108, 10–26.Google Scholar
  149. RSL. (2017). Literature in Britain Today. The Royal Society of Literature. Available at Accessed 23 July 2018.
  150. Rustin, S. (2013, June 5). Interview: Children’s Laureate Malorie Blackman: ‘I’m Looking Forward to Redressing the Balance for Teenagers’. The Guardian [Online]. Available at Accessed 23 July 2018.
  151. Ryder, M. (2018, August 17). The Press Is Not the “Enemy of the People” but Neither Is It the Friend of Diversity. Black on White TV [Online]. Available at Accessed 23 August 2018.
  152. Saha, A. (2013). Benny Hill Theatre: “Race,” Commodification, and the Politics of Representation. In J. Gray & D. Johnson (Eds.), A Companion to Media Authorship. (pp. 239–256). Chichester: Wiley.Google Scholar
  153. Saha, A. (2015). The Marketing of Race in Cultural Production. In K. Oakley & J. O’Connor (Eds.), Routledge Companion to the Cultural Industries (pp. 99–111). London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  154. Saha, A. (2016). The Rationalizing/Racializing Logic of Capital in Cultural Production. Media Ind., 3(1), 1–16.Google Scholar
  155. Saha, A. (2018). Race and the Cultural Industries. London: Polity.Google Scholar
  156. Said, E. (1978). Orientalism. New York: Pantheon Books.Google Scholar
  157. Said, E. (1994). Culture and Imperialism. London: Vintage Books.Google Scholar
  158. Said, E. (2004). Power, Politics, and Culture Interviews with Edward W. Said. London: Bloomsbury.Google Scholar
  159. Sands-O’Connor, K. (2007). Soon Come Home to This Island: West Indians in Children’s Literature. London: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. Sands-O’Connor, K. (2017). Children’s Publishing and Black Britain, 1965–2015. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. Schieble, M. (2012). Critical Conversations on Whiteness with Young Adult Literature. Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 56(3), 212–221.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. Schutte, A. (2012, December 10). It Matters If You’re Black or White: The Racism of YA Book Covers. YALSA [Online]. Available at Accessed 23 July 2018.
  163. Seller, J. (2017, June 2). BookExpo 2017: On Race, Reviewing, and Responsibility. Publishers Weekly [Online]. Available at Accessed 23 July 2018.
  164. Shoemaker, P. J., & Reese, S. D. (1991). Mediating the Message: Theories of Influences on Mass Media Content. New York, NY: Longman.Google Scholar
  165. Shriver, L. (2016, September 13). Lionel Shriver’s Full Speech: I Hope the Concept of Cultural Appropriation Is a Passing Fad. The Guardian [Online]. Available at Accessed 23 March 2018.
  166. Shriver, L. (2018, February 21). Writers Blocked: How the New Call-Out Culture Is Killing Fiction. Prospect Magazine [Online]. Available at Accessed 23 March 2018.
  167. Smith, V. (2016, May 4). Unmaking the White Default. Kirkus Reviews [Online]. Available at
  168. Spivak, G. C. (1988). Can the Subaltern Speak? Basingstoke: Macmillan.Google Scholar
  169. St. Clair, N. (1995). Outside Looking In: Representations of Gay and Lesbian Experiences in the Young Adult Novel. ALAN Review, 23(1), 38–43.Google Scholar
  170. Stephens, J., & McCallum, R. (2009). Positioning Otherness: (Post-) Multiculturalism and Point of View in Australian Young Adult Fiction. In U. Garde & A-R. Meyer (Eds.), Belonging and Exclusion: Case Studies in Recent Australian and German Literature, Film and Theatre (pp. 133–146). Newcastle, UK: Cambridge Scholars.Google Scholar
  171. Taylor, M., & O’Brien, D. (2017). ‘Culture Is a Meritocracy’: Why Creative Workers Attitudes May Reinforce Social Inequality. Sociological Research Online, 22(4), 27–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. Thomas, E. (2014, June 10). The Imagination Gap in #Kidlit and #YAlit: An Introduction to the Dark Fantastic. In The Dark Fantastic: Race and the Imagination in Children’s & YA Books, Media, and Fan Cultures [Online]. Available at Accessed 23 March 2018.
  173. Thomas, E. (2016). Stories Still Matter: Rethinking the Role of Diverse Children’s Literature Today. Language Arts, Urbana, 94(2), 112–119.Google Scholar
  174. Toscano, K. (2012). Using Young Adult Literature to Increase Student Success and Teach Multiculturalism (p. 231). Paper: Education Masters.Google Scholar
  175. Tsosie, R. A. (2002). Reclaiming Native Stories: An Essay on Cultural Appropriation and Cultural Rights. Arizona State Law Journal, 34, 299.Google Scholar
  176. Wajid, S. (2018, March 1). BAME Staff Are the Most Vulnerable. Museums Association [Online]. Available at Accessed 23 July 2018.
  177. Walker, M. (2017, March 28). ‘The Hate U Give’ Author Angie Thomas on #BlackLivesMatter, Her Debut Novel and ‘Harry Potter’. Teen Vogue [Online]. Available at Accessed 23 March 2018.
  178. Wilkins, E. J. (2014). Using African American Children’s Literature as a Model for ‘Writing Back’ Racial Wrongs. In K. J. Fasching-Varner, R. E. Reynolds, K. A. Albert, & L. L. Martin (Eds.), Trayvon Martin, Race, and American Justice: Teaching Race and Ethnicity. Rotterdam: Sense Publishers.Google Scholar
  179. Xie, S. (1999). Rethinking the Identity of Cultural Otherness: The Discourse of Difference as an Unfinished Project. In R. McGillis (Ed.), Voices of the Other: Children’s Literature and the Postcolonial Context (pp. 1–16). London, UK: Routledge.Google Scholar
  180. Yoon, B., Simpson, A., & Haag, C. (2010). Assimilation Ideology: Critically Examining Underlying Messages in Multicultural Literature. Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 54(2), 109–118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. YouGov. (2014, July 26). The British Empire Is “Something to be Proud Of”. YouGov UK [Online]. Available at Accessed 23 March 2018.
  182. YouGov. (2015, February 15). Bookish Britain: Literary Jobs Are the Most Desirable. YouGov UK [Online]. Available at Accessed 23 March 2018.
  183. Young, J. K. (2006). Black Writers, White Publishers. Jackson: University Press of Mississippi.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University College LondonLondonUK

Personalised recommendations