REWAS 2019 pp 167-175 | Cite as

Ferroalloy Production from Spent Petroleum Catalysts by Reductive Smelting and Selective Oxidation Processes

  • Jong-Jin PakEmail author
  • Do-Hyeong Kim
  • Min-Kyu Paek
  • Yong-Dae Kim
Conference paper
Part of the The Minerals, Metals & Materials Series book series (MMMS)


Solid spent catalysts from the hydroprocessing units of petroleum refining industries contain valuable metals of V, Ni, and Mo in appreciable concentration together with a significant amount of sulfur in an alumina supporting material. A recycling process for this resource has been developed and commercialized by reductive smelting and selective oxidation processes to recover these metals in the form of ferroalloys. The carbon saturated Fe–V–Ni–Mo melt recovered from the reductive smelting was oxidized to separate vanadium into a slag which can be processed for Fe–V alloy production. Then Fe–V and Fe–Ni–Mo alloys were successfully manufactured with high recovery ratios of over 90% and 95%, respectively.


Spent catalyst Reductive smelting Ferroalloy Vanadium Nickel Molybdenum 



This study was supported by the R&D Center for Valuable Recycling (Global-Top Environmental Technology Development Program) funded by the Ministry of Environment (Project No.: 2016002230003).


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Copyright information

© The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jong-Jin Pak
    • 1
    Email author
  • Do-Hyeong Kim
    • 1
  • Min-Kyu Paek
    • 2
  • Yong-Dae Kim
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Materials EngineeringHanyang University, ERICAAnsanSouth Korea
  2. 2.Department of Chemical and Metallurgical EngineeringAalto UniversityEspooFinland
  3. 3.Golden River CoGunsanSouth Korea

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