To fulfill the growing demand for alternative and sustainable feedstock production for metal additive manufacturing, a novel dual-stage ball milling strategy was proposed to effectively convert recycled stainless-steel machining chips to powder with desirable characteristics for metal additive manufacturing. A theoretical analysis was performed to evaluate the impact of ball size on the chips-to-powder evolution and the consequent powder morphology. To verify the viability of using the ball milled powder created from machining chips in metal additive manufacturing, single tracks have been successfully deposited via laser engineered net shaping deposition and compared to the single tracks made from gas atomized powder using identical deposition conditions. The microstructures of these single tracks exhibited adequate adhesion to the substrate, a uniform melt pool geometry, continuity, and minimal splatter. Minimal differences in grain structure were observed between the single tracks made from ball milled powder and those made from gas atomized powder.
Metal additive Manufacturing Stainless steel Sustainability Ball milling
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
The present work is financially supported by NSF-CBET#1605392.
Frazier WE (2014) Metal additive manufacturing: a review. J Mater Eng Perform 23(6):1917–1928CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bourhis FL, Kerbrat O, Hascoet J-Y, Mognol P (2013) Sustainable manufacturing: evaluation and modeling of environmental impacts in additive manufacturing. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 69(9):1927–1939CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ford S, Despeisse M (2016) Additive manufacturing and sustainability: an exploratory study of the advantages and challenges. J Clean Prod 137:1573–1587CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Huang SH, Liu P, Mokasdar A, Hou L (2013) Additive manufacturing and its societal impact: a literature review. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 67(5):1191–1203CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tan JH, Wong WLE, Dalgarno KW (2017) An overview of powder granulometry on feedstock and part performance in the selective laser melting process. Addit Manuf 18:228–255CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ma K, Smith T, Lavernia EJ, Schoenung JM (2016) Environmental sustainability of laser metal deposition: the role of feedstock powder and feedstock utilization factor. Procedia Manuf 7:198–204CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Anderson IE, White EMH, Dehoff R (2018) Feedstock powder processing research needs for additive manufacturing development. Curr Opin Solid State Mater Sci 22(1):8–15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
DebRoy T et al (2018) Additive manufacturing of metallic components—process, structure and properties. Prog Mater Sci 92:112–224CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gusev AI, Kurlov AS (2008) Production of nanocrystalline powders by high-energy ball milling: model and experiment. Nanotechnology 19(26):265302CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hertz H, Jones DE, Schott GA (1896) Miscellaneous papers. Macmillan, LondonGoogle Scholar