Salinity: A Major Agricultural Problem—Causes, Impacts on Crop Productivity and Management Strategies

  • Abdul Majeed
  • Zahir Muhammad


Salinity along with drought is one of the leading abiotic stresses in agriculture which foster growth retardation, physiological abnormalities, and lower production output of field crops throughout the world. Salt stress remains a major growth-limitation factor mostly in arid and semiarid zones. The problem emerges when the concentration of Na+, Cl, and ions of other allied salts exceeds in soil than standard levels, which primarily disturbs the osmotic functions and then consequently alters several metabolic activities required for normal growth and development of plants. Besides natural occurrences in some soils, excessive irrigation, climate change, and agricultural intensification are some of the contributing factors towards soil salinity. Although different plants differ in sensitivity to soil salinity, most of their growth and yield traits are negatively influenced as a result of disorders in respiration, photosynthesis, mineral uptake, and oxidative stress. Decreased crop productivity due to salinity—as expected to elevate in the coming decades—would pose severe threats to global food security in the future if the challenge is not properly directed. Sustainable agronomic practices, deployment of molecular and functional genomic approaches can boost our understanding of salinity stress and create salt-tolerant traits in major field crops which could potentially contribute to production and yield enhancement under elevated saline conditions.


Metabolites Selection traits QTL Osmotic stress NaCl Photosynthesis Ionic toxicity 


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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Abdul Majeed
    • 1
  • Zahir Muhammad
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of BotanyGovernment Degree College NagumanPeshawarPakistan
  2. 2.Department of BotanyUniversity of PeshawarPeshawarPakistan

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