Plants Behavior Under Soil Acidity Stress: Insight into Morphophysiological, Biochemical, and Molecular Responses

  • M. H. M. Borhannuddin Bhuyan
  • Mirza HasanuzzamanEmail author
  • Kamrun Nahar
  • Jubayer Al Mahmud
  • Khursheda Parvin
  • Tasnim Farha Bhuiyan
  • Masayuki Fujita


Soil pH is a major, variable growth factor in natural and agricultural soils. Although many soils are naturally acidic, agricultural practices industrial processes and mining promote soil acidification. Proton (H+) rhizotoxicity arrested root growth in various plant and exerts its toxic effect by reducing the nutrient availability, disrupting the plasma membrane H+-ATPase activity, disturbing metabolic process, producing reactive oxygen species (ROS), and upsetting the antioxidant defense system. High activity of the H+ in the external growth medium exceeds the ability of the cell to maintain the cytoplasmic pH and stops the normal growth of the plants. Acidic condition in plant growing medium also disrupts the water uptake of plant. Another problem in the acidic soil is associated with phytotoxicity from Al, Mn, and Fe; those can exert detrimental effect on plant growth and development. Although some plant species evolved to survive in areas of low soil pH and can tolerate the acidity of soil, their number is very limited and productivity is very low. On the other hand, the diversity relationship between soil pH and plant is mostly negative, when its evolutionary center any plant species located on high pH soils, that species is more susceptible to acidic pH; hence, this phenomenon should be well considered. However, the mechanism by which the acidity (H+) exerts toxic effect on the plant species is still unclear, and only few researches addressed the effects of external pH change on plants. In addition, how some species can tolerate the low pH demands further researches. Hence, this chapter reviews the mechanism of damage under acidity (H+ rhizotoxicity) stress on plants, and also the recent approaches to improve growth and productivity under acidic condition, from the available literatures.


Abiotic stress H+ rhizotoxicity Antioxidant defense Reactive oxygen species Oxidative damages Acidity stress tolerance 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. H. M. Borhannuddin Bhuyan
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Mirza Hasanuzzaman
    • 4
    Email author
  • Kamrun Nahar
    • 5
  • Jubayer Al Mahmud
    • 6
  • Khursheda Parvin
    • 1
    • 7
  • Tasnim Farha Bhuiyan
    • 5
  • Masayuki Fujita
    • 8
  1. 1.Laboratory of Plant Stress Responses, Department of Applied Biological, Sciences, Faculty of AgricultureKagawa UniversityTakamatsuJapan
  2. 2.Bangladesh Agricultural Research InstituteJoydebpur, GazipurBangladesh
  3. 3.Citrus Research Station, Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute (BARI)JaintiapurBangladesh
  4. 4.Department of Agronomy, Faculty of AgricultureSher-e-Bangla Agricultural UniversityDhakaBangladesh
  5. 5.Department of Agricultural Botany, Faculty of AgricultureSher-e-Bangla Agricultural UniversityDhakaBangladesh
  6. 6.Department of Agroforestry and Environmental Science, Faculty of AgricultureSher-e-Bangla Agricultural UniversityDhakaBangladesh
  7. 7.Department of Horticulture, Faculty of AgricultureSher-e-Bangla Agricultural UniversityDhakaBangladesh
  8. 8.Laboratory of Plant Stress Responses, Department of Applied Biological Sciences, Faculty of AgricultureKagawa UniversityTakamatsuJapan

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