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Imaging Findings of Fungal Infections of the Cranial and Peripheral Nerves

  • Ahmet T. Turgut
  • Elif Başbay Gündoğdu
  • Can Başaloğlu
  • Mehmet Turgut
Chapter

Abstract

Infectious diseases of the central nervous system (CNS) are still important causes of morbidity and mortality in spite of the presence of significant progress in the prevention and treatment in recent years. Fungal pathogens rarely affect the CNS. Development of fungal infections depends on host’s immune status and fungal virulence factors. Immunocompetent individuals are usually resistant to fungal infections. These infections are particularly seen in immunocompromised persons. Microbiologically, fungal infections are caused by yeasts, molds, and dimorphic fungi in immunocompromised hosts. The most common fungal infection is cryptococcal meningitis, although the most common nosocomial infection is candidiasis. In immunocompromised patients, invasive aspergillosis and mucormycosis are associated with high morbidity and mortality. Infections due to fungal pathogens frequently present with a variety of neuroimaging features in neuroradiological techniques such as magnetic resonance imaging. In this chapter, we will review radiological characteristics of fungal diseases involving the CNS, according to morphologic features of fungal pathogens.

Keywords

Antifungal agents Aspergillosis Blastomycosis Candidiasis Central nervous system Coccidioidomycosis Cryptococcal meningitis Fungal infections Histoplasmosis Zygomycosis 

Abbreviations

AIDS

Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

CNS

Central nervous system

CSF

Cerebrospinal fluid

DWI

Diffusion weighted imaging

HIV

Human immunodeficiency virus

MRI

Magnetic resonance imaging

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ahmet T. Turgut
    • 1
  • Elif Başbay Gündoğdu
    • 2
  • Can Başaloğlu
    • 3
  • Mehmet Turgut
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of RadiologyIstinye University Faculty of MedicineİstanbulTurkey
  2. 2.Department of RadiologyOsmangazi UniversityEskişehirTurkey
  3. 3.Department of Radiologyİzmir Dr. Suat Eren Chest Diseases and Surgery Training and Research HospitalİzmirTurkey
  4. 4.Department of NeurosurgeryAydın Adnan Menderes University School of MedicineAydınTurkey

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