Cladosporium spp., Fusarium spp., Bipolaris spp., Schizophyllum commune, and Scedosporium apiospermum

  • A. Serda Kantarcioglu


Dematiaceous fungi Cladosporium species, Bipolaris hawaiiensis, Schizophyllum commune, and members of Scedosporium apiospermum complex are common saprobes in soil, and pathogens of plants and infective propagules can be air transported. S. apiospermum can be commonly found in polluted waters, and Fusarium species are hyaline hyphomycetes found in soil, air, and water, and some are plant pathogens. The fungus was isolated from hospital environment and water tanks.

Cladosporium species can rarely be cause of cerebral phaeohyphomycoses, while B. hawaiiensis and S. apiospermum shows a marked neurotropism and a high propensity to cause central nervous system ( CNS) infections in healthy and immunocompromised patients. Almost all reported CNS infections by Fusarium spp. were in disseminated fusariosis cases.

The CNS fungal infections by hyphomycetes may present with various clinical syndromes, such as basal meningitis and space-occupying lesions (such as cerebral abscesses, granulomas, etc.). The CNS mycoses by hyphomycetes carry higher risks of morbidities and mortality.

In vitro antifungal susceptibility profiles of these fungi may be species-/strain-dependent and demonstrate usually high MICs to most antifungal agents. Fusarium strains have high levels of intrinsic antifungal resistance. In addition to antifungal treatment, the optimal management of patients with these molds includes surgical debridement of infected tissues whenever possible. Delay in initiation of appropriate antifungal treatment and the use of corticosteroids was associated with treatment failure. Amphotericin B and voriconazole are the most useful broad-spectrum antifungal medication but with many toxic side effects and limitations.


Dematiaceous fungi Neurotropism Hyalohyphomycetes Angiotropism 



Acute lymphoblastic leukemia


Amphotericin B


Acute myeloid leukemia


Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute


Central nervous system


Computed tomography


Cerebrospinal fluid


European Confederation of Medical Mycology


European Fungal Infection Study Group


European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases


European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility


Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor


Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor


Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase


Hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients


Internal transcribed spacer


Potassium hydroxide


Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometer


Minimum effective concentration


Minimum inhibitory concentration


Multi-locus sequence typing


Magnetic resonance imaging


Polymerase chain reaction


Sabouraud dextrose agar




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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. Serda Kantarcioglu
    • 1
  1. 1.Division of Mycology, Department of Medical Microbiology, Cerrahpasa Medical FacultyIstanbul University-CerrahpasaIstanbulTurkey

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