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Cryptococcosis

  • Anita Mahadevan
  • Shankar Krishna Susarla
Chapter

Abstract

Human fungal diseases now constitute a significant global health problem particularly in resource-poor countries with the emergence of human immunodeficiency virus ( HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), rapid increase in successful solid organ transplantations, and the expanding armamentarium of immunosuppressive drugs for treatment of cancers and autoimmune and rheumatological diseases. There is an urgent need for better diagnostic tools and a wider array of therapies to treat these lethal infections. Cryptococcal infection is one of the most common opportunistic infections. This “sugar-coated” yeast is a unique model of eukaryotic virulence. The pathology and immunopathogenic mechanism of Cryptococcus species are the most studied, and have helped in enhancing our understanding of fungal pathogenesis in general, developing robust diagnostic tests, as well as standardizing treatment modalities. However, there remain several unanswered questions as to how these pathogens cause disease within the central nervous system. Unravelling answers to these questions will provide new insights into organ-specific fungal pathogenesis and will help develop effective treatment reducing morbidity and mortality.

Keywords

Cryptococcus Meningitis Capsular polysaccharide Virulence factors Neuropathology Pathogenesis 

Abbreviations

AIDS

Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

ART

Antiretroviral therapy

BBB

Blood-brain barrier

CM

Cryptococcal meningitis

CNS

Central nervous system

CSF

Cerebrospinal fluid

DC

Dendritic cell

EFA

Early fungicidal activity

HAART

Highly active antiretroviral therapy

GalXM

Galactoxylomannan

GXM

Glucuronoxylomannan

HIV

Human immunodeficiency virus

IL

Interleukin

INOS

Inducible nitric oxide synthase

IRD

Immune restoration disease

IRIS

Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome

MP

Mannoprotein

MRI

Magnetic resonance imaging

TNF

Tumor necrosis factor

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Anita Mahadevan
    • 1
  • Shankar Krishna Susarla
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of NeuropathologyNational Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences (NIMHANS)BangaloreIndia

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