Histoplasmosis and Coccidioidomycosis

  • María del Rocío Reyes-Montes
  • Maria Lucia Taylor
  • Esperanza Duarte-Escalante
  • María Guadalupe Frías-De-León


Fungal infections of the central nervous system (CNS) have increased in recent decades due to the growth of population susceptible to infections caused by primary fungal pathogens. Among these fungi, both genus Histoplasma and Coccidioides stand out, which are characterized by reaching the CNS through hematogenous dissemination. The mortality of patients with CNS infection caused by these fungi is high, particularly because of the complication to make a specific diagnosis in a timely manner. The initial treatment of these mycoses is amphotericin B; therefore, these infections require an opportune and precise diagnosis for the proper management of patients. In this chapter, a review of the epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical characteristics, diagnosis, as well as the treatment of histoplasmosis and coccidioidomycosis of the CNS is presented.


Histoplasmosis Coccidioidomycosis CNS Meningitis Brain abscess Amphotericin B Azole antifungals 



Acquired immune deficiency syndrome


Complement fixation


Central nervous system


Cerebrospinal fluid


Extracellular matrix


Enzyme immunoassay


Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay


European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer/Invasive Fungal Infections Cooperative Group and the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Mycoses Study Group


Food and Drug Administration


Gomori methenamine silver




Human immunodeficiency virus


Double immunodiffusion






Internal transcribed spacer


Periodic acid-Schiff


Polymerase chain reaction




Recognition receptors


Real-time quantitative


Random amplified polymorphic DNA


Reactive oxygen species


Serum antigens


Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3


Toll-like receptors


Tumor necrosis factor


Urinary antigen


United States of America


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • María del Rocío Reyes-Montes
    • 1
  • Maria Lucia Taylor
    • 1
  • Esperanza Duarte-Escalante
    • 1
  • María Guadalupe Frías-De-León
    • 2
  1. 1.Microbiology and Parasitology Department, School of MedicineUniversidad Nacional Autónoma de MéxicoMexico CityMexico
  2. 2.Research UnitHospital Regional de Alta Especialidad de IxtapalucaIxtapalucaMexico

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