The Assessment of Emergent and Early Literacy Skills in the Akshara Languages

  • Shaher Banu VaghEmail author
  • Sonali Nag
Part of the Literacy Studies book series (LITS, volume 17)


The assessment of language and literacy skills in the akshara languages pose distinct challenges that are related to the specificities of the orthography, contextual variability and population diversity, which in turn tend to be compounded by generally low levels of achievement. In this book chapter, we discuss an assessment framework linked to a language and literacy framework for the early years for akshara languages. Using assessments for Hindi and Kannada as cross-linguistic illustrative examples, the discussion focuses on psychometric rigor and sensitivity to contextual factors that include demographic diversity (e.g., socioeconomic factors, home language(s), and access to literacy resources), classroom practices and orthography.


Akshara languages Assessment Emergent literacy India Oral language proficiency Reading comprehension Writing 


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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.ASER CentreNew DelhiIndia
  2. 2.PrathamNew DelhiIndia
  3. 3.Department of EducationUniversity of OxfordOxfordUK
  4. 4.The Promise FoundationBangaloreIndia

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