The Surgeon, the Patient, and the Healthcare System: Access, Equity, and Fairness

  • Alexis G. Antunez
  • Andrew G. ShumanEmail author


Accessing surgical services is an inherently complicated process that can expose and create disparities in care provision and health outcomes. The overarching principle that structures approaches to access in surgery is justice, although how this is framed and implemented remains a complex issue. Access and justice tend to intersect and are often resolved based upon circumstantial details, whether in clinical practice, policy, law, or administration, despite established frameworks. Herein, these values are analyzed as applied to various stakeholders including organizations, countries, health systems, and individual surgeons, which each face unique challenges to ensuring fair and equitable access and care.


Access Surgery Ethics Justice Fairness 

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of Michigan Medical SchoolAnn ArborUSA
  2. 2.Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck SurgeryUniversity of Michigan Medical SchoolAnn ArborUSA
  3. 3.Center for Bioethics and Social Sciences in Medicine, University of Michigan Medical SchoolAnn ArborUSA

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